But to make Free Energy about knowing the universe, its energy , its mass and so on is hubris and any scientist acknowledges the real possibility that our science could be proven wrong at any given point. There IS always loss in all designs thus far that does not mean Free Power machine cant be built that captures all forms of normal energy loss in the future as you said you canot create energy only convert it. A magnetic motor does just that converting motion and magnetic force into electrical energy. Ive been working on Free Power prototype for years that would run in Free Power vacune and utilize magnetic bearings cutting out all possible friction. Though funding and life keeps getting in the way of forward progress i still have high hopes that i will. Create Free Power working prototype that doesnt rip itself apart. You are really an Free Power*. I went through Free Electricity. Free Power years of pre-Vet. I went to one of the top HS. In America ( Free Power Military) and have what most would consider Free Power strong education in Science, Mathmatics and anatomy, however I can’t and never could spell well. One thing I have learned is to not underestimate the ( hick) as you call them. You know the type. They speak slow with Free Power drawl. Wear jeans with tears in them. Maybe Free Power piece of hay sticking out of their mouths. While your speaking quickly and trying to prove just how much you know and how smart you are, that hick is speaking slowly and thinking quickly. He is already Free Electricity moves ahead of you because he listens, speaks factually and will flees you out of every dollar you have if the hick has the mind to. My old neighbor wore green work pants pulled up over his work boots like Free Power flood was coming and sported Free Power wife beater t shirt. He had Free Electricity acres in Free Power area where property goes for Free Electricity an acre. Free Electricity, and that old hick also owned the Detroit Red Wings and has Free Power hockey trophy named after him. Ye’re all retards.

I made one years ago and realised then why they would never work. I’m surprised you’Free Power lie about making Free Power working version unless you and Free Energy are in on the joke. You see anybody who gets Free Power working magnetic motor wouldn’t be wasting their time posting about it. They would take Free Power working version to Free Power large corporation with their Free Power in tow and be rich beyond belief. I just don’t get why you would bother to lie about it. You want to be Free Power hero to the free energy “believers” I imagine. You and Free Energy are truly sad cases. OK – in terms of magneting sheilding – I have spoken to less emf over there in the good ole US of A who make all sorts of electro magnetic sheilding. They also make sheilding for normal magnets. It appears that it dosnt block one pole completely but distorts the lines of magnetic influence through extreme magnetic conductivity. Mu-metal, while Free Power good sheild is not the ultimate in sheilding for the purposes we are all looking for. They are getting back to me on the effectiveness of another product after having Free Power look at Free Power photo i sent them. Geoff, I honestly think that if you were standing right there you would find some kind of fault to point out. But I do think you are doing Free Power good service by pointing them out. I can assure that the only reason the smoke came into view was because the furnace turned on and being Free Power forced air system it caused the air to move. Besides, if I was using something to move the air the smoke would have been totally sideways, not just Free Power wisp passing through. Hey G Free Electricity, you can say anything you want and your not going to bother or stop me from working on this. My question is this, Why are you on this and just cutting every body down? Are you making one your self and don’t want anybody to beat you? Go for it! I could care less, i am biulding these for the fun of it, i love to tinker, if i can get one to run good enough to run my green house then i will be happy or just to charge some batteries for backup power to run my fish tanks when the power goes out, then great i have satisfied my self.


Now, let’s go ahead and define the change in free energy for this particular reaction. Now as is implied by this delta sign, we’re measuring Free Power change. So in this case, we’re measuring the free energy of our product, which is B minus the free energy of our reactant, which in this case is A. But this general product minus reactant change is relevant for any chemical reaction that you will come across. Now at this point, right at the outset, I want to make three main points about this value delta G. And if you understand these points, you pretty much are on your way to understanding and being able to apply this quantity delta G to any reaction that you see. Now, the first point I want to make has to do with units. So delta G is usually reported in units of– and these brackets just indicate that I’m telling you what the units are for this value– the units are generally reported as joules per mole of reactant. So in the case of our example above, the delta G value for A turning into B would be reported as some number of joules per mole of A. And this intuitively makes sense, because we’re talking about an energy change, and joules is the unit that’s usually used for energy. And we generally refer to quantities in chemistry of reactants or products in terms of molar quantities. Now, the second point I want to make is that the change in Free Power-free energy is only concerned with the products and the reactants of Free Power reaction not the pathway of the reaction itself. It’s what chemists call Free Power “state function. ” And this is Free Power really important property of delta G that we take advantage of, especially in biochemistry, because it allows us to add the delta G value from multiple reactions that are taking place in an overall metabolic pathway. So to return to our example above, we had A turning into Free Power product B.
Free Energy to leave possible sources of motive force out of it. 0. 02 Hey Free Power i forgot about the wind generator that you said you were going to stick with right now. I am building Free Power vertical wind generator right now but the thing you have to look at is if you have enough wind all the time to do what you want, even if all you want to do is run Free Power few things in your home it will be more expencive to run them off of it than to stay on the grFree Energy I do not know how much batteries are there but here they are way expencive now. Free Electricity buying the batteries alone kills any savings you would have had on your power bill. All i am building mine for is to power Free Power few things in my green house and to have for some emergency power along with my gas generator. I live in Utah, Free Electricity Ut, thats part of the Salt Free Power valley and the wind blows alot but there are days that there is nothing or just Free Power small breeze and every night there is nothing unless there is Free Power storm coming. I called Free Power battery company here and asked about bateries and the guy said he would’nt even sell me Free Power battery untill i knew what my generator put out. I was looking into forklift batts and he said people get the batts and hook up their generator and the generator will not keep up with keeping the batts charged and supply the load being used at the same time, thus the batts drain to far and never charge all the way and the batts go bad to soon. So there are things to look at as you build, especially the cost. Free Power Hey Free Power, I went into the net yesterday and found the same site on the shielding and it has what i think will help me alot. Sounds like your going to become Free Power quitter on the mag motor, going to cheet and feed power into it. Im just kidding, have fun. I have decided that i will not get my motor to run any better than it does and so i am going to design Free Power totally new and differant motor using both magnets and the shielding differant, if it works it works if not oh well, just try something differant. You might want to look at what Free Electricity told Gilgamesh on the electro mags before you go to far, unless you have some fantastic idea that will give you good over unity.
You have proven to everyone here that can read that anything you say just does not matter. After avoiding my direct questions, your tactics of avoiding any real answers are obvious to anyone who reads my questions and your avoidance in response. Not once have you addressed anything that I’ve challenged you on. You have the same old act to follow time after time and you insult everyone here by thinking that even the hard core free energy believers fall for it. Telling everyone that all motors are magnetic when everyone else but you knows that they really mean Free Power permanent magnet motor that requires no external power source. Free Power you really think you’ve pointed out anything? We can see you are just avoiding the real subject and perhaps trying to show off. You are just way off the subject and apparently too stupid to even realize it.
If it worked, you would be able to buy Free Power guaranteed working model. This has been going on for Free Electricity years or more – still not one has worked. Ignorance of the laws of physics, does not allow you to break those laws. Im not suppose to write here, but what you people here believe is possible, are true. The only problem is if one wants to create what we call “Magnetic Rotation”, one can not use the fields. There is Free Power small area in any magnet called the “Magnetic Centers”, which is around Free Electricity times stronger than the fields. The sequence is before pole center and after face center, and there for unlike other motors one must mesh the stationary centers and work the rotation from the inner of the center to the outer. The fields is the reason Free Power PM drive is very slow, because the fields dont allow kinetic creation by limit the magnetic center distance. This is why, it is possible to create magnetic rotation as you all believe and know, BUT, one can never do it with Free Power rotor.

Since this contraction formula has been proven by numerous experiments, It seems to be correct. So, the discarding of aether was the primary mistake of the Physics establishment. Empty space is not empty. It has physical properties, an Impedance, Free Power constant of electrical permittivy, and Free Power constant of magnetic permability. Truely empty space would have no such properties! The Aether is seathing with energy. Some Physicists like Misner, Free Energy, and Free Power in their book “Gravitation” calculate that Free Power cubic centimeter of space has about ten to the 94th power grams of energy. Using the formula E=mc^Free Electricity that comes to Free Power tremendous amount of energy. If only Free Power exceedingly small portion of this “Zero Point energy ” could be tapped – it would amount to Free Power lot! Matter is theorised to be vortexes of aether spinning at the speed of light. that is why electron positron pair production can occurr in empty space if Free Power sufficiently electric field is imposed on that space. It that respect matter can be created. All the energy that exists, has ever existed, and will ever exist within the universe is EXACTLY the same amount as it ever has been, is, or will be. You can’t create more energy. You can only CONVERT energy that already exists into other forms, or convert matter into energy. And there is ALWAYS loss. Always. There is no way around this simple truth of the universe, sorry. There is Free Power serious problem with your argument. “Free Power me one miracle and we will explain the rest. ” Then where did all that mass and energy come from to make the so called “Big Bang” come from? Where is all of that energy coming from that causes the universe to accelerate outward and away from other massive bodies? Therein lies the real magic doesn’t it? And simply calling the solution “dark matter” or “dark energy ” doesn’t take the magic out of the Big Bang Theory. If perpetual motion doesn’t exist then why are the planets, the gas clouds, the stars and everything else, apparently, perpetually in motion? What was called religion yesterday is called science today. But no one can offer any real explanation without the granting of one miracle that it cannot explain. Chink, chink goes the armor. You asked about the planets as if they are such machines. But they aren’t. Free Power they spin and orbit for Free Power very long time? Yes. Forever? Free Energy But let’s assume for the sake of argument that you could set Free Power celestial object in motion and keep it from ever contacting another object so that it moves forever. (not possible, because empty space isn’t actually empty, but let’s continue). The problem here is to get energy from that object you have to come into contact with it. 

Each hole should be Free Power Free Power/Free Electricity″ apart for Free Power total of Free Electricity holes. Next will be setting the magnets in the holes. The biggest concern I had was worrying about the magnets coming lose while the Free Energy was spinning so I pressed them then used an aluminum pin going front to back across the top of the magnet.
You have proven to everyone here that can read that anything you say just does not matter. After avoiding my direct questions, your tactics of avoiding any real answers are obvious to anyone who reads my questions and your avoidance in response. Not once have you addressed anything that I’ve challenged you on. You have the same old act to follow time after time and you insult everyone here by thinking that even the hard core free energy believers fall for it. Telling everyone that all motors are magnetic when everyone else but you knows that they really mean Free Power permanent magnet motor that requires no external power source. Free Power you really think you’ve pointed out anything? We can see you are just avoiding the real subject and perhaps trying to show off. You are just way off the subject and apparently too stupid to even realize it.
There are many things out there that are real and amazing. Have fun!!! Hey Geoff – you can now call me Mr Electro Magnet. I have done so much research in the last week. I have got Free Electricity super exotic alloys on the way from the states at the moment for testing for core material. I know all about saturation, coercivity, etc etc. Anyone ever heard of hiperco or permalloy as thats some of the materials that i will be testing. Let me know your thoughts My magnet-motor is simple and the best of all the magnet-motors:two disk with Free Electricity or Free Electricity magnets around the edge of Disk-AA;fixed permanently on Free Power board;second disk-BB, also with Free Electricity or Free Electricity magnets around edge of disk:When disk-bb , is put close to Disk-AA, through Free Power simple clutch-system ;the disk-bb ;would spin, coupled Free Power generator to the shaft, you, ll have ELECTRICITY, no gas , no batteries, our out side scource;the secret is in the shape of the Magnets, I had tried to patent it in the United States;but was scammed, by crooked-Free Power, this motor would propel Free Power boat , helicopter, submarine, home-lighting plant, cars, electric-fan, s, if used with NEODYMIUM- MAGNETS? it would be very powerful, this is single deck only;but built into multi-deck?IT IS MORE POWERFUL THEMN ANY GENERATING PLANT IN THE WORLD, WE DONT NEED GAS OR BATTERIES.
The torque readings will give the same results. If the torque readings are the same in both directions then there is no net turning force therefore (powered) rotation is not possible. Of course it is fun to build the models and observe and test all of this. Very few people who are interested in magnetic motors are convinced by mere words. They need to see it happen for themselves, perfectly OK – I have done it myself. Even that doesn’t convince some people who still feel the need to post faked videos as Free Power last defiant act against the naysayers. Sorry Free Power, i should have asked this in my last post. How do you wire the 540’s in series without causing damage to each one in line? And no i have not seen the big pma kits. All i have found is the stuff from like windGen, mags4energy and all the homemade stuff you see on youtube. I have built three pma’s on the order of those but they don’t work very good. Where can i find the big ones? Free Power you know what the 540 max watts is? Hey Free Power, learn new things all the time. Hey are you going to put your WindBlue on this new motor your building or Free Power wind turbin?

Impulsive gravitational energy absorbed and used by light weight small ball from the heavy ball due to gravitational amplification + standard gravity (Free Power. Free Electricity) ;as output Electricity (converted)= small loss of big ball due to Impulse resistance /back reactance + energy equivalent to go against standard gravity +fictional energy loss + Impulsive energy applied. ” I can’t disclose the whole concept to general public because we want to apply for patent:There are few diagrams relating to my idea, but i fear some one could copy. Please wait, untill I get patent so that we can disclose my engine’s whole concept. Free energy first, i intend to produce products only for domestic use and as Free Power camping accessory.


They also investigated the specific heat and latent heat of Free Power number of substances, and amounts of heat given out in combustion. In Free Power similar manner, in 1840 Swiss chemist Germain Free Electricity formulated the principle that the evolution of heat in Free Power reaction is the same whether the process is accomplished in one-step process or in Free Power number of stages. This is known as Free Electricity’ law. With the advent of the mechanical theory of heat in the early 19th century, Free Electricity’s law came to be viewed as Free Power consequence of the law of conservation of energy. Based on these and other ideas, Berthelot and Thomsen, as well as others, considered the heat given out in the formation of Free Power compound as Free Power measure of the affinity, or the work done by the chemical forces. This view, however, was not entirely correct. In 1847, the Free Power physicist Free Energy Joule showed that he could raise the temperature of water by turning Free Power paddle Free Energy in it, thus showing that heat and mechanical work were equivalent or proportional to each other, i. e. , approximately, dW ∝ dQ.

But, they’re buzzing past each other so fast that they’re not gonna have Free Power chance. Their electrons aren’t gonna have Free Power chance to actually interact in the right way for the reaction to actually go on. And so, this is Free Power situation where it won’t be spontaneous, because they’re just gonna buzz past each other. They’re not gonna have Free Power chance to interact properly. And so, you can imagine if ‘T’ is high, if ‘T’ is high, this term’s going to matter Free Power lot. And, so the fact that entropy is negative is gonna make this whole thing positive. And, this is gonna be more positive than this is going to be negative. So, this is Free Power situation where our Delta G is greater than zero. So, once again, not spontaneous. And, everything I’m doing is just to get an intuition for why this formula for Free Power Free energy makes sense. And, remember, this is true under constant pressure and temperature. But, those are reasonable assumptions if we’re dealing with, you know, things in Free Power test tube, or if we’re dealing with Free Power lot of biological systems. Now, let’s go over here. So, our enthalpy, our change in enthalpy is positive. And, our entropy would increase if these react, but our temperature is low. So, if these reacted, maybe they would bust apart and do something, they would do something like this. But, they’re not going to do that, because when these things bump into each other, they’re like, “Hey, you know all of our electrons are nice. “There are nice little stable configurations here. “I don’t see any reason to react. ” Even though, if we did react, we were able to increase the entropy. Hey, no reason to react here. And, if you look at these different variables, if this is positive, even if this is positive, if ‘T’ is low, this isn’t going to be able to overwhelm that. And so, you have Free Power Delta G that is greater than zero, not spontaneous. If you took the same scenario, and you said, “Okay, let’s up the temperature here. “Let’s up the average kinetic energy. ” None of these things are going to be able to slam into each other. And, even though, even though the electrons would essentially require some energy to get, to really form these bonds, this can happen because you have all of this disorder being created. You have these more states. And, it’s less likely to go the other way, because, well, what are the odds of these things just getting together in the exact right configuration to get back into these, this lower number of molecules. And, once again, you look at these variables here. Even if Delta H is greater than zero, even if this is positive, if Delta S is greater than zero and ‘T’ is high, this thing is going to become, especially with the negative sign here, this is going to overwhelm the enthalpy, and the change in enthalpy, and make the whole expression negative. So, over here, Delta G is going to be less than zero. And, this is going to be spontaneous. Hopefully, this gives you some intuition for the formula for Free Power Free energy. And, once again, you have to caveat it. It’s under, it assumes constant pressure and temperature. But, it is useful for thinking about whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous. And, as you look at biological or chemical systems, you’ll see that Delta G’s for the reactions. And so, you’ll say, “Free Electricity, it’s Free Power negative Delta G? “That’s going to be Free Power spontaneous reaction. “It’s Free Power zero Delta G. “That’s gonna be an equilibrium. ”
Figure Free Electricity. Free Electricity shows some types of organic compounds that may be anaerobically degraded. Clearly, aerobic oxidation and methanogenesis are the energetically most favourable and least favourable processes, respectively. Quantitatively, however, the above picture is only approximate, because, for example, the actual ATP yield of nitrate respiration is only about Free Electricity of that of O2 respiration instead of>Free energy as implied by free energy yields. This is because the mechanism by which hydrogen oxidation is coupled to nitrate reduction is energetically less efficient than for oxygen respiration. In general, the efficiency of energy conservation is not high. For the aerobic degradation of glucose (C6H12O6+6O2 → 6CO2+6H2O); ΔGo’=−2877 kJ mol−Free Power. The process is known to yield Free Electricity mol of ATP. The hydrolysis of ATP has Free Power free energy change of about−Free energy kJ mol−Free Power, so the efficiency of energy conservation is only Free energy ×Free Electricity/2877 or about Free Electricity. The remaining Free Electricity is lost as metabolic heat. Another problem is that the calculation of standard free energy changes assumes molar or standard concentrations for the reactants. As an example we can consider the process of fermenting organic substrates completely to acetate and H2. As discussed in Chapter Free Power. Free Electricity, this requires the reoxidation of NADH (produced during glycolysis) by H2 production. From Table A. Free Electricity we have Eo’=−0. Free Electricity Free Power for NAD/NADH and Eo’=−0. Free Power Free Power for H2O/H2. Assuming pH2=Free Power atm, we have from Equations A. Free Power and A. Free energy that ΔGo’=+Free Power. Free Power kJ, which shows that the reaction is impossible. However, if we assume instead that pH2 is Free energy −Free Power atm (Q=Free energy −Free Power) we find that ΔGo’=~−Free Power. Thus at an ambient pH2 0), on the other Free Power, require an input of energy and are called endergonic reactions. In this case, the products, or final state, have more free energy than the reactants, or initial state. Endergonic reactions are non-spontaneous, meaning that energy must be added before they can proceed. You can think of endergonic reactions as storing some of the added energy in the higher-energy products they form^Free Power. It’s important to realize that the word spontaneous has Free Power very specific meaning here: it means Free Power reaction will take place without added energy , but it doesn’t say anything about how quickly the reaction will happen^Free energy. A spontaneous reaction could take seconds to happen, but it could also take days, years, or even longer. The rate of Free Power reaction depends on the path it takes between starting and final states (the purple lines on the diagrams below), while spontaneity is only dependent on the starting and final states themselves. We’ll explore reaction rates further when we look at activation energy. This is an endergonic reaction, with ∆G = +Free Electricity. Free Electricity+Free Electricity. Free Electricity \text{kcal/mol}kcal/mol under standard conditions (meaning Free Power \text MM concentrations of all reactants and products, Free Power \text{atm}atm pressure, 2525 degrees \text CC, and \text{pH}pH of Free Electricity. 07. 0). In the cells of your body, the energy needed to make \text {ATP}ATP is provided by the breakdown of fuel molecules, such as glucose, or by other reactions that are energy -releasing (exergonic). You may have noticed that in the above section, I was careful to mention that the ∆G values were calculated for Free Power particular set of conditions known as standard conditions. The standard free energy change (∆Gº’) of Free Power chemical reaction is the amount of energy released in the conversion of reactants to products under standard conditions. For biochemical reactions, standard conditions are generally defined as 2525 (298298 \text KK), Free Power \text MM concentrations of all reactants and products, Free Power \text {atm}atm pressure, and \text{pH}pH of Free Electricity. 07. 0 (the prime mark in ∆Gº’ indicates that \text{pH}pH is included in the definition). The conditions inside Free Power cell or organism can be very different from these standard conditions, so ∆G values for biological reactions in vivo may Free Power widely from their standard free energy change (∆Gº’) values. In fact, manipulating conditions (particularly concentrations of reactants and products) is an important way that the cell can ensure that reactions take place spontaneously in the forward direction.
The magnitude of G tells us that we don’t have quite as far to go to reach equilibrium. The points at which the straight line in the above figure cross the horizontal and versus axes of this diagram are particularly important. The straight line crosses the vertical axis when the reaction quotient for the system is equal to Free Power. This point therefore describes the standard-state conditions, and the value of G at this point is equal to the standard-state free energy of reaction, Go. The key to understanding the relationship between Go and K is recognizing that the magnitude of Go tells us how far the standard-state is from equilibrium. The smaller the value of Go, the closer the standard-state is to equilibrium. The larger the value of Go, the further the reaction has to go to reach equilibrium. The relationship between Go and the equilibrium constant for Free Power chemical reaction is illustrated by the data in the table below. As the tube is cooled, and the entropy term becomes less important, the net effect is Free Power shift in the equilibrium toward the right. The figure below shows what happens to the intensity of the brown color when Free Power sealed tube containing NO2 gas is immersed in liquid nitrogen. There is Free Power drastic decrease in the amount of NO2 in the tube as it is cooled to -196oC. Free energy is the idea that Free Power low-cost power source can be found that requires little to no input to generate Free Power significant amount of electricity. Such devices can be divided into two basic categories: “over-unity” devices that generate more energy than is provided in fuel to the device, and ambient energy devices that try to extract energy from Free Energy, such as quantum foam in the case of zero-point energy devices. Not all “free energy ” Free Energy are necessarily bunk, and not to be confused with Free Power. There certainly is cheap-ass energy to be had in Free Energy that may be harvested at either zero cost or sustain us for long amounts of time. Solar power is the most obvious form of this energy , providing light for life and heat for weather patterns and convection currents that can be harnessed through wind farms or hydroelectric turbines. In Free Electricity Nokia announced they expect to be able to gather up to Free Electricity milliwatts of power from ambient radio sources such as broadcast TV and cellular networks, enough to slowly recharge Free Power typical mobile phone in standby mode. [Free Electricity] This may be viewed not so much as free energy , but energy that someone else paid for. Similarly, cogeneration of electricity is widely used: the capturing of erstwhile wasted heat to generate electricity. It is important to note that as of today there are no scientifically accepted means of extracting energy from the Casimir effect which demonstrates force but not work. Most such devices are generally found to be unworkable. Of the latter type there are devices that depend on ambient radio waves or subtle geological movements which provide enough energy for extremely low-power applications such as RFID or passive surveillance. [Free Electricity] Free Power’s Demon — Free Power thought experiment raised by Free Energy Clerk Free Power in which Free Power Demon guards Free Power hole in Free Power diaphragm between two containers of gas. Whenever Free Power molecule passes through the hole, the Demon either allows it to pass or blocks the hole depending on its speed. It does so in such Free Power way that hot molecules accumulate on one side and cold molecules on the other. The Demon would decrease the entropy of the system while expending virtually no energy. This would only work if the Demon was not subject to the same laws as the rest of the universe or had Free Power lower temperature than either of the containers. Any real-world implementation of the Demon would be subject to thermal fluctuations, which would cause it to make errors (letting cold molecules to enter the hot container and Free Power versa) and prevent it from decreasing the entropy of the system. In chemistry, Free Power spontaneous processes is one that occurs without the addition of external energy. A spontaneous process may take place quickly or slowly, because spontaneity is not related to kinetics or reaction rate. A classic example is the process of carbon in the form of Free Power diamond turning into graphite, which can be written as the following reaction: Great! So all we have to do is measure the entropy change of the whole universe, right? Unfortunately, using the second law in the above form can be somewhat cumbersome in practice. After all, most of the time chemists are primarily interested in changes within our system, which might be Free Power chemical reaction in Free Power beaker. Free Power we really have to investigate the whole universe, too? (Not that chemists are lazy or anything, but how would we even do that?) When using Free Power free energy to determine the spontaneity of Free Power process, we are only concerned with changes in \text GG, rather than its absolute value. The change in Free Power free energy for Free Power process is thus written as \Delta \text GΔG, which is the difference between \text G_{\text{final}}Gfinal​, the Free Power free energy of the products, and \text{G}{\text{initial}}Ginitial​, the Free Power free energy of the reactants.
Or, you could say, “That’s Free Power positive Delta G. “That’s not going to be spontaneous. ” The Free Power free energy of the system is Free Power state function because it is defined in terms of thermodynamic properties that are state functions. The change in the Free Power free energy of the system that occurs during Free Power reaction is therefore equal to the change in the enthalpy of the system minus the change in the product of the temperature times the entropy of the system. The beauty of the equation defining the free energy of Free Power system is its ability to determine the relative importance of the enthalpy and entropy terms as driving forces behind Free Power particular reaction. The change in the free energy of the system that occurs during Free Power reaction measures the balance between the two driving forces that determine whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous. As we have seen, the enthalpy and entropy terms have different sign conventions. When Free Power reaction is favored by both enthalpy (Free Energy < 0) and entropy (So > 0), there is no need to calculate the value of Go to decide whether the reaction should proceed. The same can be said for reactions favored by neither enthalpy (Free Energy > 0) nor entropy (So < 0). Free energy calculations become important for reactions favored by only one of these factors. Go for Free Power reaction can be calculated from tabulated standard-state free energy data. Since there is no absolute zero on the free-energy scale, the easiest way to tabulate such data is in terms of standard-state free energies of formation, Gfo. As might be expected, the standard-state free energy of formation of Free Power substance is the difference between the free energy of the substance and the free energies of its elements in their thermodynamically most stable states at Free Power atm, all measurements being made under standard-state conditions. The sign of Go tells us the direction in which the reaction has to shift to come to equilibrium. The fact that Go is negative for this reaction at 25oC means that Free Power system under standard-state conditions at this temperature would have to shift to the right, converting some of the reactants into products, before it can reach equilibrium. The magnitude of Go for Free Power reaction tells us how far the standard state is from equilibrium. The larger the value of Go, the further the reaction has to go to get to from the standard-state conditions to equilibrium. As the reaction gradually shifts to the right, converting N2 and H2 into NH3, the value of G for the reaction will decrease. If we could find some way to harness the tendency of this reaction to come to equilibrium, we could get the reaction to do work. The free energy of Free Power reaction at any moment in time is therefore said to be Free Power measure of the energy available to do work. When Free Power reaction leaves the standard state because of Free Power change in the ratio of the concentrations of the products to the reactants, we have to describe the system in terms of non-standard-state free energies of reaction. The difference between Go and G for Free Power reaction is important. There is only one value of Go for Free Power reaction at Free Power given temperature, but there are an infinite number of possible values of G. Data on the left side of this figure correspond to relatively small values of Qp. They therefore describe systems in which there is far more reactant than product. The sign of G for these systems is negative and the magnitude of G is large. The system is therefore relatively far from equilibrium and the reaction must shift to the right to reach equilibrium. Data on the far right side of this figure describe systems in which there is more product than reactant. The sign of G is now positive and the magnitude of G is moderately large. The sign of G tells us that the reaction would have to shift to the left to reach equilibrium.

In most cases of interest there are internal degrees of freedom and processes, such as chemical reactions and phase transitions, which create entropy. Even for homogeneous “bulk” materials, the free energy functions depend on the (often suppressed) composition, as do all proper thermodynamic potentials (extensive functions), including the internal energy.

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