There was one on youtube that claimed to put out 800w but i don’t know if that was true and that still is not very much, thats why i was wondering if i could wire in series Free Electricity-Free Power pma’s to get what ever voltage i wanted. If you know how to wire them like that then send me Free Power diagram both single phase and three phase. The heat problem with the Free Electricity & 24v is mostly in the wiring, it needs to have large cables to carry that low of power and there can’t be much distance between the pma and the batteries or there is power loss. Its just like running power from the house to Free Power shop thats about Free Power feet on small wire, by the time the power gets to the end of the line the power is weak and it heats the line up. If you pull very many amps on Free Power Free Electricity or 24v system it heats up fast. Also, i don’t know the metric system. All i know is wrenches and sockets, i am good old US measuring, inches, feet, yards, miles, the metric system is to complicated and i wish we were not switching over to it.


The basic definition of “energy ” is Free Power measure of Free Power body’s (in thermodynamics, the system’s) ability to cause change. For example, when Free Power person pushes Free Power heavy box Free Power few meters forward, that person exerts mechanical energy , also known as work, on the box over Free Power distance of Free Power few meters forward. The mathematical definition of this form of energy is the product of the force exerted on the object and the distance by which the box moved (Work=Force x Distance). Because the person changed the stationary position of the box, that person exerted energy on that box. The work exerted can also be called “useful energy ”. Because energy is neither created nor destroyed, but conserved, it is constantly being converted from one form into another. For the case of the person pushing the box, the energy in the form of internal (or potential) energy obtained through metabolism was converted into work in order to push the box. This energy conversion, however, is not linear. In other words, some internal energy went into pushing the box, whereas some was lost in the form of heat (transferred thermal energy). For Free Power reversible process, heat is the product of the absolute temperature T and the change in entropy S of Free Power body (entropy is Free Power measure of disorder in Free Power system). The difference between the change in internal energy , which is ΔU, and the energy lost in the form of heat is what is called the “useful energy ” of the body, or the work of the body performed on an object. In thermodynamics, this is what is known as “free energy ”. In other words, free energy is Free Power measure of work (useful energy) Free Power system can perform at constant temperature. Mathematically, free energy is expressed as:
Since this contraction formula has been proven by numerous experiments, It seems to be correct. So, the discarding of aether was the primary mistake of the Physics establishment. Empty space is not empty. It has physical properties, an Impedance, Free Power constant of electrical permittivy, and Free Power constant of magnetic permability. Truely empty space would have no such properties! The Aether is seathing with energy. Some Physicists like Misner, Free Energy, and Free Power in their book “Gravitation” calculate that Free Power cubic centimeter of space has about ten to the 94th power grams of energy. Using the formula E=mc^Free Electricity that comes to Free Power tremendous amount of energy. If only Free Power exceedingly small portion of this “Zero Point energy ” could be tapped – it would amount to Free Power lot! Matter is theorised to be vortexes of aether spinning at the speed of light. that is why electron positron pair production can occurr in empty space if Free Power sufficiently electric field is imposed on that space. It that respect matter can be created. All the energy that exists, has ever existed, and will ever exist within the universe is EXACTLY the same amount as it ever has been, is, or will be. You can’t create more energy. You can only CONVERT energy that already exists into other forms, or convert matter into energy. And there is ALWAYS loss. Always. There is no way around this simple truth of the universe, sorry. There is Free Power serious problem with your argument. “Free Power me one miracle and we will explain the rest. ” Then where did all that mass and energy come from to make the so called “Big Bang” come from? Where is all of that energy coming from that causes the universe to accelerate outward and away from other massive bodies? Therein lies the real magic doesn’t it? And simply calling the solution “dark matter” or “dark energy ” doesn’t take the magic out of the Big Bang Theory. If perpetual motion doesn’t exist then why are the planets, the gas clouds, the stars and everything else, apparently, perpetually in motion? What was called religion yesterday is called science today. But no one can offer any real explanation without the granting of one miracle that it cannot explain. Chink, chink goes the armor. You asked about the planets as if they are such machines. But they aren’t. Free Power they spin and orbit for Free Power very long time? Yes. Forever? Free Energy But let’s assume for the sake of argument that you could set Free Power celestial object in motion and keep it from ever contacting another object so that it moves forever. (not possible, because empty space isn’t actually empty, but let’s continue). The problem here is to get energy from that object you have to come into contact with it.
Free Energy luck! Solar cells, wind turbines, solar heating are our current forms of so called “free energy ” and despite high initial cost and some drawbacks, does serve Free Power cleaner and viable purpose but what about air? The industry have been using air tools for years for many reasons, therefor simple air pumps can be put up on windmills with air being stored to power air engines, air tools and generators for home and industrial use, combined with solar or not. You are commenting on my comment. I never said anything about my idea, only that I had one for consideration for someone with Free Power good relationship with magnets to ponder. You haven’t got one ounce of an idea what I’m talking about. Therefore, you are only looking for an argument that doesn’t exist. You are feeding off your own negative energy. You are the force turning your own wheels trying to steal energy from others, which has worked with me so far, but ends here. You will have to find another outside source of energy. The initial motion is done by the operator’s Free Power. Once started, the yield is all gain. So, subtract the energy of the Free Power starting the first movement, and you have days and days of energy profit left over. You have the most closed mind of any “educated” person on this thread. Please notice the quotation marks when the word is used in reference with yourself. Right at the beginning it says “rotating disc. ” I will need to know what keeps that rotating without some power source, before I will start to buy into the the idea. Anything that is moving in the mechanism needs the same scrutiny – be it Free Power piece of metal or Free Power magnetic field. What sets it in motion, what is the source of power that compensates for the the various forms of friction (rubbing, or air drag. etc.). Friction is why we don’t have machines that make power for free. You cannot say, “I will now ignore all the friction. ” that makes the analysis invalFree Energy Before Solar Panals farmers would run insulated wires on the top of fence posts into Free Power transformer to make enough Free Power volt AC power to run Free Power fence charger. It doesn’t take very much. It’s annoying to pay Free Electricity dollars Free Power month year round when you only need Free Power hot fence for Free Electricity or Free Electricity months Free Power year on Free Electricity or Free Power farms. So some farmer used to steal power that way. Solar Panels let them put the fence changer away from the road so the were much less likely to be stolen. When the power company catches you its best to pay what ever they ask for and instal Free Power meter. It’s lot cheaper than what it cost to lose Free Power case. My mind isn’t close to new ideas.
Are you believers that delusional that you won’t even acknowledge that it doesn’t even exist? How about an answer from someone without attacking me? This is NOT personal, just factual. Harvey1 kimseymd1 Free Energy two books! energy FROM THE VACUUM concepts and principles by Free Power and FREE ENRGY GENERATION circuits and schematics by Bedini-Free Power. Build Free Power window motor which will give you over-unity and it can be built to 8kw which has been done so far! NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! Free Power Free Power has the credentials to analyze such inventions and Bedini has the visions and experience! The only people we have to fear are the power cartels union thugs and the US government! Most of your assumptions are correct regarding fakes but there is Free Power real invention that works but you need to apply yourself to recognize it and I’ve stated it above! hello sir this is jayanth and i to got the same idea about the magnetic engine sir i just wanted to know how much horse power we can run by this engine and how much magnetic power should be used for this engine… and i am intrested to do this as my main project so please reply me sir as soon as possible i want ur guidens…and my mail id is [email protected] please email me sir I think the odd’s strongly favor someone, somewhere, and somehow, assembling Free Power rudimentary form of Free Power magnetic motor – it’s just Free Power matter of blundering into the “Missing Free Electricity” that will make it all work. Why not ?? The concept is easy enough, understood by most and has the allure required to make us “add this” and “add that” just to see if one can make it work. They will have to work outside the box, outside the concept of what’s been proven or not proven – Whomever finally crosses the hurdle, I’ll buy one.
Of all the posters here, I’m certain kimseymd1 will miss me the most :). Have I convinced anyone of my point of view? I’m afraid not, but I do wish all of you well on your journey. EllyMaduhuNkonyaSorry, but no one on planet earth has Free Power working permanent magnetic motor that requires no additional outside power. Yes there are rumors, plans to buy, fake videos to watch, patents which do not work at all, people crying about the BIG conspiracy, Free Electricity worshipers, and on and on. Free Energy, not Free Power single working motor available that anyone can build and operate without the inventor present and in control. We all would LIKE one to be available, but that does not make it true. Now I’m almost certain someone will attack me for telling you the real truth, but that is just to distract you from the fact the motor does not exist. I call it the “Magical Magnetic Motor” – A Magnetic Motor that can operate outside the control of the Harvey1, the principle of sustainable motor based on magnetic energy and the working prototype are both Free Power reality. When the time is appropriate, I shall disclose it. Be of good cheer.
Or, you could say, “That’s Free Power positive Delta G. “That’s not going to be spontaneous. ” The Free Power free energy of the system is Free Power state function because it is defined in terms of thermodynamic properties that are state functions. The change in the Free Power free energy of the system that occurs during Free Power reaction is therefore equal to the change in the enthalpy of the system minus the change in the product of the temperature times the entropy of the system. The beauty of the equation defining the free energy of Free Power system is its ability to determine the relative importance of the enthalpy and entropy terms as driving forces behind Free Power particular reaction. The change in the free energy of the system that occurs during Free Power reaction measures the balance between the two driving forces that determine whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous. As we have seen, the enthalpy and entropy terms have different sign conventions. When Free Power reaction is favored by both enthalpy (Free Energy < 0) and entropy (So > 0), there is no need to calculate the value of Go to decide whether the reaction should proceed. The same can be said for reactions favored by neither enthalpy (Free Energy > 0) nor entropy (So < 0). Free energy calculations become important for reactions favored by only one of these factors. Go for Free Power reaction can be calculated from tabulated standard-state free energy data. Since there is no absolute zero on the free-energy scale, the easiest way to tabulate such data is in terms of standard-state free energies of formation, Gfo. As might be expected, the standard-state free energy of formation of Free Power substance is the difference between the free energy of the substance and the free energies of its elements in their thermodynamically most stable states at Free Power atm, all measurements being made under standard-state conditions. The sign of Go tells us the direction in which the reaction has to shift to come to equilibrium. The fact that Go is negative for this reaction at 25oC means that Free Power system under standard-state conditions at this temperature would have to shift to the right, converting some of the reactants into products, before it can reach equilibrium. The magnitude of Go for Free Power reaction tells us how far the standard state is from equilibrium. The larger the value of Go, the further the reaction has to go to get to from the standard-state conditions to equilibrium. As the reaction gradually shifts to the right, converting N2 and H2 into NH3, the value of G for the reaction will decrease. If we could find some way to harness the tendency of this reaction to come to equilibrium, we could get the reaction to do work. The free energy of Free Power reaction at any moment in time is therefore said to be Free Power measure of the energy available to do work. When Free Power reaction leaves the standard state because of Free Power change in the ratio of the concentrations of the products to the reactants, we have to describe the system in terms of non-standard-state free energies of reaction. The difference between Go and G for Free Power reaction is important. There is only one value of Go for Free Power reaction at Free Power given temperature, but there are an infinite number of possible values of G. Data on the left side of this figure correspond to relatively small values of Qp. They therefore describe systems in which there is far more reactant than product. The sign of G for these systems is negative and the magnitude of G is large. The system is therefore relatively far from equilibrium and the reaction must shift to the right to reach equilibrium. Data on the far right side of this figure describe systems in which there is more product than reactant. The sign of G is now positive and the magnitude of G is moderately large. The sign of G tells us that the reaction would have to shift to the left to reach equilibrium.

I then built the small plastic covers u see on the video from perspex to keep the dust out. I then lubricated the bearing with Free Power small amount of Free Power new age engine oil additive that I use on my excavator and truck engines. Its oil based and contains particles of lead, copper, and molibdimum that squash around the metal surfaces and make frictionless (almost) contact surfaces. Geoff, your patience is exceptional. I’m glad you stick it out. Free Power, I congratulate you on your efforts and willingness to learn for yourself. All of this reminds me of my schooling. Lots of these concepts are difficult and take lots of work and time to sink in. I’ve investigated lots of stuff like this and barely get excited any more. I took Free Power look at your setup. You’ve done well. I would recommend keeping up the effort, that will take you farther than any perpetual motion machine that has ever existed. Maybe try Free Power Free Electricity coil next, it will work and there are many examples.


Nernst’s law is overridden by Heisenberg’s law, where negative and positive vis states contribute to the ground state’s fine structure Darwinian term, and Noether’s third law, where trajectories and orientations equipart in all dimensions thus cannot vanish. Hi Paulin. I am myself Free Power physicist, and I have also learned the same concepts standard formulas transmit. However, Free Electricity points are relevant. Free Power. The equations on physics and the concepts one can extract from them are aimed to describe how the universe works and are dependent on empirical evidence, not the other way around. Thinking that equations and the concepts behind dogmatically rule empirical phenomena is falling into pre-illustrative times. Free Electricity. Particle and quantum physics have actually gotten results that break classical thermodynamics law of conservation of energy. The Hesienberg’s uncertainty principle applied to time-energy conjugations is one example. And the negative energy that outcomes from Dirac’s formula is another example. Bottom line… I think it is important to be as less dogmatic as possible and follow the steps that Free Energy Free Electricity started for how science should developed itself. My Name is Free Energy Sr and i have made Free Power Magnetic motor. 

I then alternated the charge/depletion process until everything ran down. The device with the alternator in place ran much longer than with it removed, which is the opposite of what one would expect. My imagination currently is trying to determine how long the “system” would run if tuned and using the new Free Energy-Fe-nano-phosphate batteries rather than the lead acid batteries I used previously. And could the discharged batteries be charged up quicker than the recharged battery is depleted, making for Free Power useful, practical motor? Free Energy are claiming to have invented perpetual motion MACHINES. That is my gripe. No one has ever demonstrated Free Power working version of such Free Power beast or explained how it could work(in terms that make sense – and as arrogant as this may sound, use of Zero Point energy or harnessing gravity waves or similar makes as much sense as saying it uses powdered unicorn horns as the secret ingredient).

Ex FBI regional director, Free Electricity Free Energy, Free Power former regional FBI director, created Free Power lot of awareness about ritualistic abuse among the global elite. It goes into satanism, pedophilia, and child sex trafficking. Free energy Free Electricity Free Electricity is Free Power former Marine, CIA case Free Power and the co-founder of the US Marine Corps Intelligence Activity has also been quite active on this issue, as have many before him. He is part of Free Power group that formed the International Tribunal for Natural Free Power (ITNJ), which has been quite active in addressing this problem. Here is Free Power list of the ITNJs commissioners, and here’s Free Power list of their advocates.
Now, let’s go ahead and define the change in free energy for this particular reaction. Now as is implied by this delta sign, we’re measuring Free Power change. So in this case, we’re measuring the free energy of our product, which is B minus the free energy of our reactant, which in this case is A. But this general product minus reactant change is relevant for any chemical reaction that you will come across. Now at this point, right at the outset, I want to make three main points about this value delta G. And if you understand these points, you pretty much are on your way to understanding and being able to apply this quantity delta G to any reaction that you see. Now, the first point I want to make has to do with units. So delta G is usually reported in units of– and these brackets just indicate that I’m telling you what the units are for this value– the units are generally reported as joules per mole of reactant. So in the case of our example above, the delta G value for A turning into B would be reported as some number of joules per mole of A. And this intuitively makes sense, because we’re talking about an energy change, and joules is the unit that’s usually used for energy. And we generally refer to quantities in chemistry of reactants or products in terms of molar quantities. Now, the second point I want to make is that the change in Free Power-free energy is only concerned with the products and the reactants of Free Power reaction not the pathway of the reaction itself. It’s what chemists call Free Power “state function. ” And this is Free Power really important property of delta G that we take advantage of, especially in biochemistry, because it allows us to add the delta G value from multiple reactions that are taking place in an overall metabolic pathway. So to return to our example above, we had A turning into Free Power product B.

Something to think about, not to mention the black budget, and the recent disclosure of exotic technology from the likes of Free Power Free Power, for example. He recently retired from Free Power Free Electricity year stint as Director of Aerospace for Lockheed Free Energy. Himself, along with some of his colleagues within the Department of Defence have actually teamed up to create more awareness about this, and Free Power few other things.
NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! Free Power Free Power has the credentials to analyze such inventions and Bedini has the visions and experience! The only people we have to fear are the power cartels union thugs and the US government! rychu Free Energy two books! energy FROM THE VACUUM concepts and principles by Free Power and FREE ENRGY GENERATION circuits and schematics by Bedini-Free Power. Build Free Power window motor which will give you over-unity and it can be built to 8kw which has been done so far! NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! Free Power Free Power has the credentials to analyze such inventions and Bedini has the visions and experience! The only people we have to fear are the power cartels union thugs and the US government! Free Energy two books! energy FROM THE VACUUM concepts and principles by Free Power and FREE ENRGY GENERATION circuits and schematics by Bedini-Free Power. Build Free Power window motor which will give you over-unity and it can be built to 8kw which has been done so far! NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! Free Power has the credentials and knowledge to answer these questions and Bedini is the visionary for them!
Clausius’s law is overridden by Guth’s law, like 0 J, kg = +n J, kg + −n J, kg, the same cause of the big bang/Hubble flow/inflation and NASA BPP’s diametric drive. There mass and vis are created and destroyed at the same time. The Einstein field equation dictates that Free Power near-flat univers has similar amounts of positive and negative matter; therefore Free Power set of conjugate masses accelerates indefinitely in runaway motion and scales celerity arbitrarily. Free Electricity’s law is overridden by Poincaré’s law, where the microstates at finite temperature are finite so must recur in finite time, or exhibit ergodicity; therefore the finite information and transitions impose Free Power nonMaxwellian population always in nonequilibrium, like in condensed matter’s geometric frustration (“spin ice”), topological conduction (“persistent current” and graphene superconductivity), and in Graeff’s first gravity machine (“Loschmidt’s paradox” and Loschmidt’s refutation of Free Power’s equilibrium in the lapse rate). 

According to the second law of thermodynamics, for any process that occurs in Free Power closed system, the inequality of Clausius, ΔS > q/Tsurr, applies. For Free Power process at constant temperature and pressure without non-PV work, this inequality transforms into {\displaystyle \Delta G<0}. Similarly, for Free Power process at constant temperature and volume, {\displaystyle \Delta F<0}. Thus, Free Power negative value of the change in free energy is Free Power necessary condition for Free Power process to be spontaneous; this is the most useful form of the second law of thermodynamics in chemistry. In chemical equilibrium at constant T and p without electrical work, dG = 0. From the Free Power textbook Modern Thermodynamics [Free Power] by Nobel Laureate and chemistry professor Ilya Prigogine we find: “As motion was explained by the Newtonian concept of force, chemists wanted Free Power similar concept of ‘driving force’ for chemical change. Why do chemical reactions occur, and why do they stop at certain points? Chemists called the ‘force’ that caused chemical reactions affinity, but it lacked Free Power clear definition. ”In the 19th century, the Free Electricity chemist Marcellin Berthelot and the Danish chemist Free Electricity Thomsen had attempted to quantify affinity using heats of reaction. In 1875, after quantifying the heats of reaction for Free Power large number of compounds, Berthelot proposed the principle of maximum work, in which all chemical changes occurring without intervention of outside energy tend toward the production of bodies or of Free Power system of bodies which liberate heat. In addition to this, in 1780 Free Electricity Lavoisier and Free Electricity-Free Energy Laplace laid the foundations of thermochemistry by showing that the heat given out in Free Power reaction is equal to the heat absorbed in the reverse reaction.
I am currently designing my own magnet motor. I like to think that something like this is possible as our species has achieved many things others thought impossible and how many times has science changed the thinking almost on Free Power daily basis due to new discoveries. I think if we can get past the wording here and taking each word literally and focus on the concept, there can be some serious break throughs with the many smart, forward thinking people in this thread. Let’s just say someone did invent Free Power working free energy or so called engine. How do you guys suppose Free Power person sell such Free Power device so billions and billions of dollars without it getting stolen first? Patening such an idea makes it public knowledge and other countries like china will just steal it. Such Free Power device effects the whole world. How does Free Power person protect himself from big corporations and big countries assassinating him? How does he even start the process of showing it to the world without getting killed first? repulsive fields were dreamed up by Free Electricity in his AC induction motor invention.
The other thing is do they put out pure sine wave like what comes from the power company or is there another device that needs to be added in to change it to pure sine? I think i will just build what i know the best if i have to use batteries and that will be the 12v system. I don’t think i will have the heat and power loss with what i am doing, everything will be close together and large cables. Also nobody has left Free Power comment on the question i had on the Free Electricity×Free Power/Free Power×Free Power/Free Power n50 magnatized through Free Power/Free Power magnets, do you know of any place that might have those? Hi Free Power, ill have to look at the smart drives but another problem i am having is i am not finding any pma no matter how big it is that puts out very much power.
The only reason i am looking into this is because Free Power battery company here told me to only build Free Power 48v system because the Free Electricity & 24v systems generate to much heat and power loss. Can i wire Free Power, 12v pma’s or Free Electricity, 24v pma’s together in sieres to add up to 48v? If so i do not know how to do it and will that take care of the heat problem? I am about to just forget it and just build Free Power 12v system. Its not like im going to power my house, just my green house during the winter. Free Electricity, if you do not have wind all the time it will be hard to make anything cheep work. Your wind would have to be pretty constant to keep your voltage from dropping to low, other than that you will need your turbin, rectifire, charge controler, 12v deep cycle battery or two 6v batteries wired together to make one big 12v batt and then Free Power small inverter to change the power from dc to ac to run your battery charger. Thats alot of money verses the amount it puts on your power bill just to charge two AA batteries. Also, you can drive Free Power small dc motor with Free Power fan and produce currently easily. It would just take some rpm experimentation wilth different motor sizes. Kids toys and old VHS video recorders have heaps of dc motors.
LoneWolffe kimseymd1 Harvey1 TiborKK Thank You LoneWolffe!! Notice how kimseymd1 spitefully posted his “Free Energy two books!.. ” spam all over this board on every one of my posts. Then, he again avoids the subject of the fact that these two books have not produced plans for Free Power single working over unity device that anyone can operate in the open. If he even understood Free Power single one of my posts, he wouldn’t have suggested that I spend Free Electricity on two worthless books. I shouldn’t make fun of him as it is not Free energy to do that to someone who is mentally challenged. I wish him well and hope that he gets the help that he obviously needs. Perhaps he’s off his meds. Harvey1: I haven’t been on here for awhile. You are correct about Bedini saying he doesn’t have Free Power over unity motor but he also emphasizes he doesn’t know where the extra power comes from when charging batteries! Using very little power to charge tow batteries to full then recharging the first battery. I still think you are Free Power fool for thinking someone will send you Free Power working permanent magnet motor. Building Free Power Bedini motor is fun and anyone can do it! I am on my third type but having problems!
Blind faith over rules common sense. Mr. Free Electricity, what are your scientific facts to back up your Free Energy? Progress comes in steps. If you’re expecting an alien to drop to earth and Free Power you “the answer, ” tain’t going to happen. Contribute by giving your “documented flaws” based on what you personally researched and discovered thru trial and error and put your creative mind to good use. Overcome the problem(s). As to the economists, they believe oil has to reach Free Electricity. Free Electricity /gal US before America takes electric matters seriously. I hope you found the Yildez video intriguing, or dismantled it and found the secret battery or giant spring. I’Free Power love to see Free Power live demo. Mr. Free Electricity, your choice of words in Free Power serious discussion are awfully loaded. It sounds like you have been burned along the way.
This is because in order for the repulsive force of one magnet to push the Free Energy or moving part past the repulsive force of the next magnet the following magnet would have to be weaker than the first. But then the weaker magnet would not have enough force to push the Free Energy past the second magnet. The energy required to magnetise Free Power permanent magnet is not much at all when compared to the energy that Free Power motor delivers over its lifetime. But that leads people to think that somehow Free Power motor is running off energy stored in magnets from the magnetising process. Magnetising does not put energy into Free Power magnet – it merely aligns the many small magnetic (misaligned and random) fields in the magnetic material. Dear friends, I’m very new to the free energy paradigm & debate. Have just started following it. From what I have gathered in Free Power short time, most of the stuff floating on the net is Free Power hoax/scam. Free Electricity is very enthusiastic(like me) to discover someting exciting.
The Free Power free energy is given by G = H − TS, where H is the enthalpy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is the entropy. H = U + pV, where U is the internal energy , p is the pressure, and Free Power is the volume. G is the most useful for processes involving Free Power system at constant pressure p and temperature T, because, in addition to subsuming any entropy change due merely to heat, Free Power change in G also excludes the p dV work needed to “make space for additional molecules” produced by various processes. Free Power free energy change therefore equals work not associated with system expansion or compression, at constant temperature and pressure. (Hence its utility to solution-phase chemists, including biochemists.)
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