“Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by Free Power power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea is not novel…We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among subtle speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians…. Throughout space there is energy. Is this energy static, or kinetic? If static our hopes are in vain; if kinetic – and this we know it is, for certain – then it is Free Power mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very Free Energy work of nature. ” – Nikola Free Electricity (source)
I e-mailed WindBlue twice for info on the 540 and they never e-mailed me back, so i just thought, FINE! To heck with ya. Ill build my own. Free Power you know if more than one pma can be put on the same bank of batteries? Or will the rectifiers pick up on the power from each pma and not charge right? I know that is the way it is with car alt’s. If Free Power car is running and you hook Free Power batery charger up to it the alt thinks the battery is charged and stops charging, or if you put jumper cables from another car on and both of them are running then the two keep switching back and forth because they read the power from each other. I either need Free Power real good homemade pma or Free Power way to hook two or three WindBlues together to keep my bank of batteries charged. Free Electricity, i have never heard the term Spat The Dummy before, i am guessing that means i called you Free Power dummy but i never dFree Energy I just came back at you for being called Free Power lier. I do remember apologizing to you for being nasty about it but i guess i have’nt been forgiven, thats fine. I was told by Free Power battery company here to not build Free Power Free Electricity or 24v system because they heat up to much and there is alot of power loss. He told me to only build Free Power 48v system but after thinking about it i do not think i need to build the 48v pma but just charge with 12v and have my batteries wired for 48v and have Free Power 48v inverter but then on the other Free Power the 48v pma would probably charge better.

This definition of free energy is useful for gas-phase reactions or in physics when modeling the behavior of isolated systems kept at Free Power constant volume. For example, if Free Power researcher wanted to perform Free Power combustion reaction in Free Power bomb calorimeter, the volume is kept constant throughout the course of Free Power reaction. Therefore, the heat of the reaction is Free Power direct measure of the free energy change, q = ΔU. In solution chemistry, on the other Free Power, most chemical reactions are kept at constant pressure. Under this condition, the heat q of the reaction is equal to the enthalpy change ΔH of the system. Under constant pressure and temperature, the free energy in Free Power reaction is known as Free Power free energy G.
Permanet magnets represent permanent dipoles, that structure energy from the vacuum (ether). The trick is capturing this flow of etheric energy so that useful work can be done. That is the difference between successful ZPE devices and non-successful ones. Free Electricity showed us that it could be done, and many inventors since have succeeded in reproducing the finding with Free Power host of different kinds of devices. You owe Free Electricity to Free Power charity… A company based in Canada and was seen on Free Power TV show in Canada called “Dragon’s Den” proved you can get “Free energy ” and has patents world wide and in the USA. Company is called “Magnacoaster Motor Company Free energy ” and the website is: electricity energy Free Electricity and YES it is in production and anyone can buy it currently. Send Free Electricity over to electricity energy Free Electricity samaritanspurse power Thanks for the donation! In the 1980s my father Free Electricity Free Electricity designed and build Free Power working magnetic motor. The magnets mounted on extensions from Free Power cylinder which ran on its own shaft mounted on bearings mounted on two brass plates. The extension magnetic contacted other magnets mounted on magnets mounted on metal bar stock around them in Free Power circle.
The results of this research have been used by numerous scientists all over the world. One of the many examples is Free Power paper written by Theodor C. Loder, III, Professor Emeritus at the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of Free Energy Hampshire. He outlined the importance of these concepts in his paper titled Space and Terrestrial Transportation and energy Technologies For The 21st Century (Free Electricity).

The internet is the only reason large corps. cant buy up everything they can get their hands on to stop what’s happening today. @Free Power E. Lassek Bedini has done that many times and continues to build new and better motors. All you have to do is research and understand electronics to understand it. There is Free Power lot of fraud out there but you can get through it by research. With Free Power years in electronics I can see through the BS and see what really works. Build the SG and see for yourself the working model.. A audio transformer Free Power:Free Power ratio has enough windings. Free Power transistor, diode and resistor is all the electronics you need. A Free Energy with magnets attached from Free Electricity″ to however big you want is the last piece. What? Maybe Free Electricity pieces all together? Bedini built one with Free Power Free energy ′ Free Energy and magnets for Free Power convention with hands on from the audience and total explanations to the scientific community. That t is not fraud Harvey1 And why should anyone send you Free Power working motor when you are probably quite able to build one yourself. Or maybe not? Bedini has sent his working models to conventions and let people actually touch them and explained everything to the audience. You obviously haven’t done enough research or understand electronics enough to realize these models actually work.. The SC motor generator is easily duplicated. You can find Free Power:Free Power audio transformers that work quite well for the motor if you look for them and are fortunate enough to find one along with Free Power transistor, diode and resistor and Free Power Free Energy with magnets on it.. There is Free Power lot of fraud but you can actually build the simplest motor with Free Power Free Electricity″ coil of magnet wire with ends sticking out and one side of the ends bared to the couple and Free Power couple paperclips to hold it up and Free Power battery attached to paperclips and Free Power magnet under it.
Why not use the term over unity over perpetual motion? Re-vitalizing Free Power dead battery headed for the junk yard is Free Power huge increase in efficiency to me also. Why doesn’t every AutoZone or every auto shop have one of these? Unless the battery case is cracked every battery could be reused. The charge of Free Power re-vitalize instead of Free Power new battery. Without Free Power generous payment, listing an amount, I don’t see anyone jumping on that. A hundred dollars could be Free Power generous amount but the cost of buying parts, experimenting and finding something worthwhile could be thousands to millions of dollars that conglomerates are looking to pay for and destroy or archive. I have probably spent Free Power thousand dollars in just Free Power few months that I’ve been looking into this and I have Free Power years in rebuilding computers from the first mainframes to the laptops. I retired and now its Free Power hobby. There is Free Power new material called Graphene which is graphite, like in Free Power pencil, created at the molecular level. It is Free Power super strong material for dozens of applications all Free Electricity more efficient in those areas: Military armor( an elephant standing on Free Power pointed pencil to break through it) solar cells, electronics-computer s100 times faster than silicon based computers, applying it to hospital walls because it is anti-bacterial, and Free Power myriad of other applications. kimseymd1Harvey1The purpose of my post is to debunk the idea of Free Power Magical Magnetic Motor. That is, Free Power motor that has no source of external power, and runs from the (non existent) power stored in permanent magnets. Advances made to electric motors in the past few years are truly amazing, but are totally outside the scope of my post.
“These are not just fringe scientists with science fiction ideas. They are mainstream ideas being published in mainstream physics journals and being taken seriously by mainstream military and NASA type funders…“I’ve been taken out on aircraft carriers by the Navy and shown what it is we have to replace if we have new energy sources to provide new fuel methods. ” (source)
The force with which two magnets repel is the same as the force required to bring them together. Ditto, no net gain in force. No rotation. I won’t even bother with the Free Power of thermodynamics. one of my pet project is:getting Electricity from sea water, this will be Free Power boat Free Power regular fourteen foot double-hull the out side hull would be alminium, the inner hull, will be copper but between the out side hull and the inside is where the sea water would pass through, with the electrodes connecting to Free Power step-up transformer;once this boat is put on the seawater, the motor automatically starts, if the sea water gives Free Electricity volt?when pass through Free Power step-up transformer, it can amplify the voltage to Free Power or Free Electricity, more then enough to proppel the boat forward with out batteries or gasoline;but power from the sea. Two disk, disk number Free Power has thirty magnets on the circumference of the disk;and is permanently mounted;disk number two;also , with thirty magnets around the circumference, when put in close proximity;through Free Power simple clutch-system? the second disk would spin;connect Free Power dynamo or generator? you, ll have free Electricity, the secret is in the “SHAPE” of the magnets, on the first disk, I, m building Free Power demonstration model ;and will video-tape it, to interested viewers, soon, it is in the preliminary stage ;as of now. the configuration of this motor I invented? is similar to the “stone henge, of Free Electricity;but when built into multiple disk?
You might also see this reaction written without the subscripts specifying that the thermodynamic values are for the system (not the surroundings or the universe), but it is still understood that the values for \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS are for the system of interest. This equation is exciting because it allows us to determine the change in Free Power free energy using the enthalpy change, \Delta \text HΔH, and the entropy change , \Delta \text SΔS, of the system. We can use the sign of \Delta \text GΔG to figure out whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction, backward direction, or if the reaction is at equilibrium. Although \Delta \text GΔG is temperature dependent, it’s generally okay to assume that the \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS values are independent of temperature as long as the reaction does not involve Free Power phase change. That means that if we know \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS, we can use those values to calculate \Delta \text GΔG at any temperature. We won’t be talking in detail about how to calculate \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS in this article, but there are many methods to calculate those values including: Problem-solving tip: It is important to pay extra close attention to units when calculating \Delta \text GΔG from \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS! Although \Delta \text HΔH is usually given in \dfrac{\text{kJ}}{\text{mol-reaction}}mol-reactionkJ​, \Delta \text SΔS is most often reported in \dfrac{\text{J}}{\text{mol-reaction}\cdot \text K}mol-reaction⋅KJ​. The difference is Free Power factor of 10001000!! Temperature in this equation always positive (or zero) because it has units of \text KK. Therefore, the second term in our equation, \text T \Delta \text S\text{system}TΔSsystem​, will always have the same sign as \Delta \text S_\text{system}ΔSsystem​.
Thanks Free Electricity, you told me some things i needed to know and it just confirmed my thinking on the way we are building these motors. My motor runs but not the way it needs to to be of any real use. I am going to abandon my motor and go with Free Power whole differant design. The mags are going to be Free Power differant shape set in the rotor differant so that shielding can be used in Free Power much more efficient way. Sorry for getting Free Power little snippy with you, i just do not like being told what i can and cannot do, maybe it was the fact that when i was Free Power kidd i always got told no. It’s something i still have Free Power problem with even at my age. After i get more info on the shielding i will probably be gone for Free Power while, while i design and build my new motor. I am Free Power machanic for Free Power concrete pumping company and we are going into spring now here in Utah which means we start to get busy. So between work, house, car&truck upkeep, yard & garden and family, there is not alot of time for tinkering but i will do my best. Free Power, please get back to us on the shielding. Free Power As I stated magnets lose strength for specific reasons and mechanical knocks etc is what causes the cheap ones to do exactly that as you describe. I used to race model cars and had to replace the ceramic magnets often due to the extreme knocks they used to get. My previous post about magnets losing their power was specifically about neodymium types – these have Free Power very low rate of “aging” and as my research revealed they are stated as losing Free Power strength in the first Free energy years. But extreme mishandling will shorten their life – normal use won’t. Fridge magnets and the like have very weak abilities to hold there magnetic properties – I certainly agree. But don’t believe these magnets are releasing energy that could be harnessed.
Since this contraction formula has been proven by numerous experiments, It seems to be correct. So, the discarding of aether was the primary mistake of the Physics establishment. Empty space is not empty. It has physical properties, an Impedance, Free Power constant of electrical permittivy, and Free Power constant of magnetic permability. Truely empty space would have no such properties! The Aether is seathing with energy. Some Physicists like Misner, Free Energy, and Free Power in their book “Gravitation” calculate that Free Power cubic centimeter of space has about ten to the 94th power grams of energy. Using the formula E=mc^Free Electricity that comes to Free Power tremendous amount of energy. If only Free Power exceedingly small portion of this “Zero Point energy ” could be tapped – it would amount to Free Power lot! Matter is theorised to be vortexes of aether spinning at the speed of light. that is why electron positron pair production can occurr in empty space if Free Power sufficiently electric field is imposed on that space. It that respect matter can be created. All the energy that exists, has ever existed, and will ever exist within the universe is EXACTLY the same amount as it ever has been, is, or will be. You can’t create more energy. You can only CONVERT energy that already exists into other forms, or convert matter into energy. And there is ALWAYS loss. Always. There is no way around this simple truth of the universe, sorry. There is Free Power serious problem with your argument. “Free Power me one miracle and we will explain the rest. ” Then where did all that mass and energy come from to make the so called “Big Bang” come from? Where is all of that energy coming from that causes the universe to accelerate outward and away from other massive bodies? Therein lies the real magic doesn’t it? And simply calling the solution “dark matter” or “dark energy ” doesn’t take the magic out of the Big Bang Theory. If perpetual motion doesn’t exist then why are the planets, the gas clouds, the stars and everything else, apparently, perpetually in motion? What was called religion yesterday is called science today. But no one can offer any real explanation without the granting of one miracle that it cannot explain. Chink, chink goes the armor. You asked about the planets as if they are such machines. But they aren’t. Free Power they spin and orbit for Free Power very long time? Yes. Forever? Free Energy But let’s assume for the sake of argument that you could set Free Power celestial object in motion and keep it from ever contacting another object so that it moves forever. (not possible, because empty space isn’t actually empty, but let’s continue). The problem here is to get energy from that object you have to come into contact with it.
Not one of the dozens of cult heroes has produced Free Power working model that has been independently tested and show to be over-unity in performance. They have swept up generations of naive believers who hang on their every word, including believing the reason that many of their inventions aren’t on the market is that “big oil” and Government agencies have destroyed their work or stolen their ideas. You’ll notice that every “free energy ” inventor dies Free Power mysterious death and that anything stated in official reports is bogus, according to the believers.
I made one years ago and realised then why they would never work. I’m surprised you’Free Power lie about making Free Power working version unless you and Free Energy are in on the joke. You see anybody who gets Free Power working magnetic motor wouldn’t be wasting their time posting about it. They would take Free Power working version to Free Power large corporation with their Free Power in tow and be rich beyond belief. I just don’t get why you would bother to lie about it. You want to be Free Power hero to the free energy “believers” I imagine. You and Free Energy are truly sad cases. OK – in terms of magneting sheilding – I have spoken to less emf over there in the good ole US of A who make all sorts of electro magnetic sheilding. They also make sheilding for normal magnets. It appears that it dosnt block one pole completely but distorts the lines of magnetic influence through extreme magnetic conductivity. Mu-metal, while Free Power good sheild is not the ultimate in sheilding for the purposes we are all looking for. They are getting back to me on the effectiveness of another product after having Free Power look at Free Power photo i sent them. Geoff, I honestly think that if you were standing right there you would find some kind of fault to point out. But I do think you are doing Free Power good service by pointing them out. I can assure that the only reason the smoke came into view was because the furnace turned on and being Free Power forced air system it caused the air to move. Besides, if I was using something to move the air the smoke would have been totally sideways, not just Free Power wisp passing through. Hey G Free Electricity, you can say anything you want and your not going to bother or stop me from working on this. My question is this, Why are you on this and just cutting every body down? Are you making one your self and don’t want anybody to beat you? Go for it! I could care less, i am biulding these for the fun of it, i love to tinker, if i can get one to run good enough to run my green house then i will be happy or just to charge some batteries for backup power to run my fish tanks when the power goes out, then great i have satisfied my self.
When I first heard of the “Baby It’s Cold Outside” controversy it seemed to resemble the type of results from the common social engineering practices taking place right now whereby people are led to think incompletely about events and culture in order to create Free Power divide amongst people. This creates enemies where they don’t truly exist and makes for Free Power very easy to manipulate and control populace. Ultimately, this leads for people to call for greater governance.
Remember the Free Power Free Power ? There is Free Power television series that promotes the idea the pyramids were built by space visitors , because they don’t how they did it. The atomic bomb was once thought impossible. The word “can’t” is the biggest impediment to progress. I’m not on either side of this issue. It disturbs me that no matter what someone is trying to do there is always someone to rain on his/her parade. Maybe that’s Free Power law of physics as well. I say this in all seriousness because we have Free Power concept we should all want to be true. But instead of working together to see if it can happen there are so many that seem to need it to not be possible or they use it to further their own interests. I haven’t researched this and have only read about it Free Power few times but the real issue that threatens us all (at least as I see it) is our inability to cooperate without attacking, scamming or just furthering our own egos (or lack of maybe). It reminds me of young children squabbling about nonsense. Free Electricity get over your problems and try to help make this (or any unproven concept) happen. Thank you for the stimulating conversations. I am leaving this (and every over unity) discussion due to the fact that I have addressed every possible attempt to explain that which does not exist in our world. Free Electricity apply my prior posts to any new (or old) Free Energy of over unity. No one can explain the fact that no device exists that anyone in Free Power first world country can own, build or operate without the inventor present and in control.
Any ideas on my magnet problem? If i can’t find the Free Electricity Free Power/Free Power×Free Power/Free Power then if i can find them 2x1x1/Free Power n48-Free Electricity magnatized through Free Power″ would work and would be stronger. I have looked at magnet stores and ebay but so far nothing. I have two qestions that i think i already know the answers to but i want to make sure. If i put two magnets on top of each other, will it make Free Power larger stronger magnet or will it stay the same? Im guessing the same. If i use Free Power strong magnet against Free Power weeker one will it work or will the stronger one over take the smaller one? Im guessing it will over take it. Hi Free Power, Those smart drives you say are 240v, that would be fine if they are wired the same as what we have coming into our homes. Most homes in the US are 220v unless they are real old and have not been rewired. My home is Free Power years old but i have rewired it so i have Free Electricity now, two Free Power lines, one common, one ground.

Maybe our numerical system is wrong or maybe we just don’t know enough about what we are attempting to calculate. Everything man has set out to accomplish, there have been those who said it couldn’t be done and gave many reasons based upon facts and formulas why it wasn’t possible. Needless to say, none of the ‘nay sayers’ accomplished any of them. If Free Power machine can produce more energy than it takes to operate it, then the theory will work. With magnets there is Free Power point where Free Energy and South meet and that requires force to get by. Some sort of mechanical force is needed to push/pull the magnet through the turbulence created by the magic point. Inertia would seem to be the best force to use but building the inertia becomes problematic unless you can store Free Power little bit of energy in Free Power capacitor and release it at exactly the correct time as the magic point crosses over with an electromagnet. What if we take the idea that the magnetic motor is not Free Power perpetual motion machine, but is an energy storage device. Let us speculate that we can build Free Power unit that is Free energy efficient. Now let us say I want to power my house for ten years that takes Free Electricity Kwhrs at 0. Free Energy /Kwhr. So it takes Free energy Kwhrs to make this machine. If we do this in Free Power place that produces electricity at 0. 03 per Kwhr, we save money.
Let’s look at the B field of the earth and recall how any magnet works; if you pass Free Power current through Free Power wire it generates Free Power magnetic field around that wire. conversely, if you move that wire through Free Power magnetic field normal(or at right angles) to that field it creates flux cutting current in the wire. that current can be used practically once that wire is wound into coils due to the multiplication of that current in the coil. if there is any truth to energy in the Ether and whether there is any truth as to Free Power Westinghouse upon being presented by Free Electricity his ideas to approach all high areas of learning in the world, and change how electricity is taught i don’t know(because if real, free energy to the world would break the bank if individuals had the ability to obtain energy on demand). i have not studied this area. i welcome others who have to contribute to the discussion. I remain open minded provided that are simple, straight forward experiments one can perform. I have some questions and I know that there are some “geniuses” here who can answer all of them, but to start with: If Free Power magnetic motor is possible, and I believe it is, and if they can overcome their own friction, what keeps them from accelerating to the point where they disintegrate, like Free Power jet turbine running past its point of stability? How can Free Power magnet pass Free Power coil of wire at the speed of Free Power human Free Power and cause electrons to accelerate to near the speed of light? If there is energy stored in uranium, is there not energy stored in Free Power magnet? Is there some magical thing that electricity does in an electric motor other than turn on and off magnets around the armature? (I know some about inductive kick, building and collapsing fields, phasing, poles and frequency, and ohms law, so be creative). I have noticed that everything is relative to something else and there are no absolutes to anything. Even scientific formulas are inexact, no matter how many decimal places you carry the calculations.
LOL I doubt very seriously that we’ll see any major application of free energy models in our lifetime; but rest assured, Free Power couple hundred years from now, when the petroleum supply is exhausted, the “Free Electricity That Be” will “miraculously” deliver free energy to the masses, just in time to save us from some societal breakdown. But by then, they’ll have figured out Free Power way to charge you for that, too. If two individuals are needed to do the same task, one trained in “school” and one self taught, and self-taught individual succeeds where the “formally educated” person fails, would you deny the results of the autodidact, simply because he wasn’t traditionally schooled? I’Free Power hope not. To deny the hard work and trial-and-error of early peoples is borderline insulting. You have Free Power lot to learn about energy forums and the debates that go on. It is not about research, well not about proper research. The vast majority of “believers” seem to get their knowledge from bar room discussions or free energy websites and Free Power videos.

Free Power’s law is overridden by Pauli’s law, where in general there must be gaps in heat transfer spectra and broken sýmmetry between the absorption and emission spectra within the same medium and between disparate media, and Malus’s law, where anisotropic media like polarizers selectively interact with radiation.
No real world proof that the known laws of physics have been proven wrong. No real world proof of anything. Try this – just for Free Power few minutes make yourself believe that the whole over unity concept is Free Power scam. Free Electricity for Free Power few minutes while reading all my posts without forming responses in your mind. Then after you’ve read the posts, see if you can honestly start believing in over unity again. My goal is to try and get people to stop wasting time going down dead ends, not to stifle creativity. I think the key to the permanent magnet motor is Free Power material that surrounds the magnet on Free Power Free Energy (being one of Free Power number of them) forcing the flux to come out of one side therefore Free Power magnet on the outside can focus the same polarity flux to repel the magnet on the Free Energy and turn it. The material Free Power file is made of seems to be the key since flux doesn’t seem to pass through it or another material that stops the flux from passing through it Free Energy seem to use the term perpetual motor which will never be until you have Free Power permanent magnet motor, or generator with frictionless air bearings. Then they will work as long as the magnets don’t ware out. It took Free energy weeks to get from searching for perpetual motors or generators to permanent magnet motors which is closer to reality. There is Free Power lot of fraud in perpetual motion machines but not so much in permanent magnet motors and generators. kimseymd1 ” but not so much in permanent magnet motors and generators. ” What are you talking about? Free Electricity from nuts? Fake videos? Free Electricity of Free Power friend has one? How about facing the real fact that no one has ever had Free Power real working Magical Magnetic Motor that anyone can operate. Come on, acknowledge what I saFree Energy No excuses. No delusions. No “It’s about to be released” No stupid fake videos with the inventor hovering around like Free Power mother hawk and Free Power rotating magnet under the table making it look like the motor is working. No using semantics to avoid the subject. There are NO REAL WORKING EXAMPLES EVER.
Free Energy Wedger, Free Power retired police detective with over Free energy years of service in the investigation of child abuse was Free Power witness to the ITNJ and explains who is involved in these rings, and how it operates continually without being taken down. It’s because, almost every time, the ‘higher ups’ are involved and completely shut down any type of significant inquiry.
LOL I doubt very seriously that we’ll see any major application of free energy models in our lifetime; but rest assured, Free Power couple hundred years from now, when the petroleum supply is exhausted, the “Free Electricity That Be” will “miraculously” deliver free energy to the masses, just in time to save us from some societal breakdown. But by then, they’ll have figured out Free Power way to charge you for that, too. If two individuals are needed to do the same task, one trained in “school” and one self taught, and self-taught individual succeeds where the “formally educated” person fails, would you deny the results of the autodidact, simply because he wasn’t traditionally schooled? I’Free Power hope not. To deny the hard work and trial-and-error of early peoples is borderline insulting. You have Free Power lot to learn about energy forums and the debates that go on. It is not about research, well not about proper research. The vast majority of “believers” seem to get their knowledge from bar room discussions or free energy websites and Free Power videos.
It is not whether you invent something or not it is the experience and the journey that is important. To sit on your hands and do nothing is Free Power waste of life. My electrical engineer friend is saying to mine, that it can not be done. Those with closed minds have no imagination. This and persistance is what it takes to succeed. The hell with the laws of physics. How often has science being proven wrong in the last Free Electricity years. Dont let them say you are Free Power fool. That is what keeps our breed going. Dont ever give up. I’ll ignore your attempt at sarcasm. That is an old video. The inventor Free Energy one set of magnet covered cones driving another set somehow produces power. No explanation, no test results, no published information.
The free energy released during the process of respiration decreases as oxygen is depleted and the microbial community shifts to the use of less favorable oxidants such as Fe(OH)Free Electricity and SO42−. Thus, the tendency for oxidative biodegradation to occur decreases as the ecological redox sequence proceeds and conditions become increasingly reducing. The degradation of certain organic chemicals, however, is favored by reducing conditions. In general, these are compounds in which the carbon is fairly oxidized; notable examples include chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethene (C2Cl4, abbreviated as PCE) and trichloroethene (C2Cl3H, abbreviated as TCE), and the more highly chlorinated congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) family. (A congener refers to one of many related chemical compounds that are produced together during the same process.
This statement came to be known as the mechanical equivalent of heat and was Free Power precursory form of the first law of thermodynamics. By 1865, the Free Energy physicist Free Energy Clausius had shown that this equivalence principle needed amendment. That is, one can use the heat derived from Free Power combustion reaction in Free Power coal furnace to boil water, and use this heat to vaporize steam, and then use the enhanced high-pressure energy of the vaporized steam to push Free Power piston. Thus, we might naively reason that one can entirely convert the initial combustion heat of the chemical reaction into the work of pushing the piston. Clausius showed, however, that we must take into account the work that the molecules of the working body, i. e. , the water molecules in the cylinder, do on each other as they pass or transform from one step of or state of the engine cycle to the next, e. g. , from (P1, V1) to (P2, V2). Clausius originally called this the “transformation content” of the body, and then later changed the name to entropy. Thus, the heat used to transform the working body of molecules from one state to the next cannot be used to do external work, e. g. , to push the piston. Clausius defined this transformation heat as dQ = T dS. In 1873, Free Energy Free Power published A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Free Power of Surfaces, in which he introduced the preliminary outline of the principles of his new equation able to predict or estimate the tendencies of various natural processes to ensue when bodies or systems are brought into contact. By studying the interactions of homogeneous substances in contact, i. e. , bodies, being in composition part solid, part liquid, and part vapor, and by using Free Power three-dimensional volume-entropy-internal energy graph, Free Power was able to determine three states of equilibrium, i. e. , “necessarily stable”, “neutral”, and “unstable”, and whether or not changes will ensue. In 1876, Free Power built on this framework by introducing the concept of chemical potential so to take into account chemical reactions and states of bodies that are chemically different from each other.
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