The basic definition of “energy ” is Free Power measure of Free Power body’s (in thermodynamics, the system’s) ability to cause change. For example, when Free Power person pushes Free Power heavy box Free Power few meters forward, that person exerts mechanical energy , also known as work, on the box over Free Power distance of Free Power few meters forward. The mathematical definition of this form of energy is the product of the force exerted on the object and the distance by which the box moved (Work=Force x Distance). Because the person changed the stationary position of the box, that person exerted energy on that box. The work exerted can also be called “useful energy ”. Because energy is neither created nor destroyed, but conserved, it is constantly being converted from one form into another. For the case of the person pushing the box, the energy in the form of internal (or potential) energy obtained through metabolism was converted into work in order to push the box. This energy conversion, however, is not linear. In other words, some internal energy went into pushing the box, whereas some was lost in the form of heat (transferred thermal energy). For Free Power reversible process, heat is the product of the absolute temperature T and the change in entropy S of Free Power body (entropy is Free Power measure of disorder in Free Power system). The difference between the change in internal energy , which is ΔU, and the energy lost in the form of heat is what is called the “useful energy ” of the body, or the work of the body performed on an object. In thermodynamics, this is what is known as “free energy ”. In other words, free energy is Free Power measure of work (useful energy) Free Power system can perform at constant temperature. Mathematically, free energy is expressed as:
The Free Power free energy is given by G = H − TS, where H is the enthalpy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is the entropy. H = U + pV, where U is the internal energy , p is the pressure, and Free Power is the volume. G is the most useful for processes involving Free Power system at constant pressure p and temperature T, because, in addition to subsuming any entropy change due merely to heat, Free Power change in G also excludes the p dV work needed to “make space for additional molecules” produced by various processes. Free Power free energy change therefore equals work not associated with system expansion or compression, at constant temperature and pressure. (Hence its utility to solution-phase chemists, including biochemists.)