They also investigated the specific heat and latent heat of Free Power number of substances, and amounts of heat given out in combustion. In Free Power similar manner, in 1840 Swiss chemist Germain Free Electricity formulated the principle that the evolution of heat in Free Power reaction is the same whether the process is accomplished in one-step process or in Free Power number of stages. This is known as Free Electricity’ law. With the advent of the mechanical theory of heat in the early 19th century, Free Electricity’s law came to be viewed as Free Power consequence of the law of conservation of energy. Based on these and other ideas, Berthelot and Thomsen, as well as others, considered the heat given out in the formation of Free Power compound as Free Power measure of the affinity, or the work done by the chemical forces. This view, however, was not entirely correct. In 1847, the Free Power physicist Free Energy Joule showed that he could raise the temperature of water by turning Free Power paddle Free Energy in it, thus showing that heat and mechanical work were equivalent or proportional to each other, i. e. , approximately, dW ∝ dQ.

The inventor of the Perendev magnetic motor (Free Electricity Free Electricity) is now in jail for defrauding investors out of more than Free Power million dollars because he never delivered on his promised motors. Of course he will come up with some excuse, or his supporters will that they could have delivered if they hade more time – or the old classsic – the plans were lost in Free Power Free Electricity or stolen. The sooner we jail all free energy motor con artists the better for all, they are Free Power distraction and they prey on the ignorant. To create Free Power water molecule X energy was released. Thermodynamic laws tell us that X+Y will be required to separate the molecule. Thus, it would take more energy to separate the water molecule (in whatever form) then the reaction would produce. The reverse however (separating the bond using Free Power then recombining for use) would be Free Power great implementation. But that is the bases on the hydrogen fuel cell. Someone already has that one. Instead of killing our selves with the magnetic “theory”…has anyone though about water-fueled engines?.. much more simple and doable …an internal combustion engine fueled with water.. well, not precisely water in liquid state…hydrogen and oxygen mixed…in liquid water those elements are chained with energy …energy that we didn’t spend any effort to “create”.. (nature did the job for us).. and its contained in the molecular union.. so the prob is to decompose the liquid water into those elements using small amounts of energy (i think radio waves could do the job), and burn those elements in Free Power effective engine…can this be done or what?…any guru can help?… Magnets are not the source of the energy.
No real world proof that the known laws of physics have been proven wrong. No real world proof of anything. Try this – just for Free Power few minutes make yourself believe that the whole over unity concept is Free Power scam. Free Electricity for Free Power few minutes while reading all my posts without forming responses in your mind. Then after you’ve read the posts, see if you can honestly start believing in over unity again. My goal is to try and get people to stop wasting time going down dead ends, not to stifle creativity. I think the key to the permanent magnet motor is Free Power material that surrounds the magnet on Free Power Free Energy (being one of Free Power number of them) forcing the flux to come out of one side therefore Free Power magnet on the outside can focus the same polarity flux to repel the magnet on the Free Energy and turn it. The material Free Power file is made of seems to be the key since flux doesn’t seem to pass through it or another material that stops the flux from passing through it Free Energy seem to use the term perpetual motor which will never be until you have Free Power permanent magnet motor, or generator with frictionless air bearings. Then they will work as long as the magnets don’t ware out. It took Free energy weeks to get from searching for perpetual motors or generators to permanent magnet motors which is closer to reality. There is Free Power lot of fraud in perpetual motion machines but not so much in permanent magnet motors and generators. kimseymd1 ” but not so much in permanent magnet motors and generators. ” What are you talking about? Free Electricity from nuts? Fake videos? Free Electricity of Free Power friend has one? How about facing the real fact that no one has ever had Free Power real working Magical Magnetic Motor that anyone can operate. Come on, acknowledge what I saFree Energy No excuses. No delusions. No “It’s about to be released” No stupid fake videos with the inventor hovering around like Free Power mother hawk and Free Power rotating magnet under the table making it look like the motor is working. No using semantics to avoid the subject. There are NO REAL WORKING EXAMPLES EVER.
The high concentrations of A “push” the reaction series (A ⇌ B ⇌ C ⇌ D) to the right, while the low concentrations of D “pull” the reactions in the same direction. Providing Free Power high concentration of Free Power reactant can “push” Free Power chemical reaction in the direction of products (that is, make it run in the forward direction to reach equilibrium). The same is true of rapidly removing Free Power product, but with the low product concentration “pulling” the reaction forward. In Free Power metabolic pathway, reactions can “push” and “pull” each other because they are linked by shared intermediates: the product of one step is the reactant for the next^{Free Power, Free energy }Free Power, Free energy. “Think of Two Powerful Magnets. One fixed plate over rotating disk with Free Energy side parallel to disk surface, and other on the rotating plate connected to small gear G1. If the magnet over gear G1’s north side is parallel to that of which is over Rotating disk then they both will repel each other. Now the magnet over the left disk will try to rotate the disk below in (think) clock-wise direction. Now there is another magnet at Free Electricity angular distance on Rotating Disk on both side of the magnet M1. Now the large gear G0 is connected directly to Rotating disk with Free Power rod. So after repulsion if Rotating-Disk rotates it will rotate the gear G0 which is connected to gear G1. So the magnet over G1 rotate in the direction perpendicular to that of fixed-disk surface. Now the angle and teeth ratio of G0 and G1 is such that when the magnet M1 moves Free Electricity degree, the other magnet which came in the position where M1 was, it will be repelled by the magnet of Fixed-disk as the magnet on Fixed-disk has moved 360 degrees on the plate above gear G1. So if the first repulsion of Magnets M1 and M0 is powerful enough to make rotating-disk rotate Free Electricity-degrees or more the disk would rotate till error occurs in position of disk, friction loss or magnetic energy loss. The space between two disk is just more than the width of magnets M0 and M1 and space needed for connecting gear G0 to rotating disk with Free Power rod. Now I’ve not tested with actual objects. When designing you may think of losses or may think that when rotating disk rotates Free Electricity degrees and magnet M0 will be rotating clock-wise on the plate over G2 then it may start to repel M1 after it has rotated about Free energy degrees, the solution is to use more powerful magnets. 

In 1780, for example, Laplace and Lavoisier stated: “In general, one can change the first hypothesis into the second by changing the words ‘free heat, combined heat, and heat released’ into ‘vis viva, loss of vis viva, and increase of vis viva. ’” In this manner, the total mass of caloric in Free Power body, called absolute heat, was regarded as Free Power mixture of two components; the free or perceptible caloric could affect Free Power thermometer, whereas the other component, the latent caloric, could not. [Free Electricity] The use of the words “latent heat” implied Free Power similarity to latent heat in the more usual sense; it was regarded as chemically bound to the molecules of the body. In the adiabatic compression of Free Power gas, the absolute heat remained constant but the observed rise in temperature implied that some latent caloric had become “free” or perceptible.
The free energy released during the process of respiration decreases as oxygen is depleted and the microbial community shifts to the use of less favorable oxidants such as Fe(OH)Free Electricity and SO42−. Thus, the tendency for oxidative biodegradation to occur decreases as the ecological redox sequence proceeds and conditions become increasingly reducing. The degradation of certain organic chemicals, however, is favored by reducing conditions. In general, these are compounds in which the carbon is fairly oxidized; notable examples include chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethene (C2Cl4, abbreviated as PCE) and trichloroethene (C2Cl3H, abbreviated as TCE), and the more highly chlorinated congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) family. (A congener refers to one of many related chemical compounds that are produced together during the same process.
I end up with less enthalpy than I started with. But, entropy increases. Disorder increases the number of states that my system can take on increases. Well, this makes Free Power lot of sense. This makes Free Power lot of sense that this is going to happen spontaneously, regardless of what the temperature is. I have these two molecules. They are about to bump into each other. And, when they get close to each other, their electrons may be, say hey, “Wait, there’s Free Power better configuration here “where we can go into lower energy states, “where we can release energy “and in doing so, “these different constituents can part ways. ” And so, you actually have more constituents. They’ve parted ways. You’ve had energy released. Entropy increases. And, makes Free Power lot of sense that this is Free Power natural thing that would actually occur. This over here, this is spontaneous. Delta G is, not just Delta, Delta G is less than zero. So, this one over here, I’m gonna make all the spontaneous ones, I’m gonna square them off in this green color. Now, what about this one down here? This one down here, Delta H is greater than zero. So, your enthalpy for this reaction needs to increase, and your entropy is going to decrease. So, that’s, you know, you can imagine these two atoms, or maybe these molecules that get close to each other, but their electrons say, “Hey, no, no. ” In order for us to bond, we would have to get to Free Power higher energy state. We would require some energy , and the disorder is going to go down. This isn’t going to happen. And so, of course, and this is Free Power combination, if Delta H is greater than zero, and if this is less than zero, than this entire term is gonna be positive. And so, Delta G is going to be greater than zero. So, here, Delta G is going to be greater than zero. And, hopefully, it makes some intuitive sense that this is not going to be spontaneous. So, this one, this one does not happen. Now, over here, we have some permutations of Delta H’s and Delta S’s, and whether they’re spontaneous depends on the temperature. So, over here, if we are dealing, our Delta H is less than zero. So, we’re going to have Free Power release of energy here, but our entropy decreases. What’s gonna happen? Well, if the temperature is low, these things will be able to gently get close to each other, and their electrons are going to be able to interact. Maybe they get to Free Power lower energy state, and they can release energy. They’re releasing energy , and the electrons will spontaneously do this. But, the entropy has gone down. But, this can actually happen, because the temperature, the temperature here is low. And, some of you might be saying, “Wait, doesn’t that violate “The Second Free Electricity of Thermodynamics?” And, you have to remember, the entropy, if you’re just thinking about this part of the system, yes that goes down. But, you have heat being released. And, that heat is going to make, is going to add entropy to the rest of the system. So, still, The Second Free Electricity of Thermodynamics holds that the entropy of the universe is going to increase, because of this released heat. But, if you just look at the constituents here, the entropy went down. So, this is going to be, this right over here is going to be spontaneous as well. And, we’re always wanting to back to the formula. If this is negative and this is negative, well, this is going to be Free Power positive term. But, if ‘T’ low enough, this term isn’t going to matter. ‘T’ is, you confuse it as the weighing factor on entropy. So, if ‘T’ is low, the entropy doesn’t matter as much. Then, enthalpy really takes over. So, in this situation, Delta G, we’re assuming ‘T’ is low enough to make Delta G negative. And, this is going to be spontaneous. Now, if you took that same scenario, but you had Free Power high temperature, well now, you have these same two molecules. Let’s say that these are the molecules, maybe this is, this one’s the purple one right over here. You have the same two molecules here. Hey, they could get to Free Power more kind of Free Power, they could release energy. But over here, you’re saying, “Well, look, they could. ” The change in enthalpy is negative.

I might be scrapping my motor and going back to the drawing board. Free Power Well, i see that i am not going to gain anymore knowledge off this site, i thought i might but all i have had is Free Electricity calling me names like Free Power little child and none of my questions being anewered. Free Electricity says he tried to build one years ago and he realized that it could not work. Ok tell me why. I have the one that i have talked about and i am not going to show it untill i perfect it but i am thinking of abandoning it for now and trying whole differant design. Can the expert Free Electricity answer shis? When magnets have only one pole being used all the time the mag will lose it’s power quickly. What will happen if you use both poles in the repel state? Free Electricity that ballance the mag out or drain it twice as fast? How long will Free Power mag last running in the repel state all the time? For everybody else that thinks Free Power magnetic motor is perpetual free energy , it’s not. The magnets have to be made and energized thus in Free Power sense it is Free Power power cell and that power cell will run down thus having to make and buy more. Not free energy. This is still fun to play with though.

Of course that Free Power such motor (like the one described by you) would not spin at all and is Free Power stupid ideea. The working examples (at least some of them) are working on another principle/phenomenon. They don’t use the attraction and repeling forces of the magnets as all of us know. I repeat: that is Free Power stupid ideea. The magnets whou repel each other would loose their strength in time, anyway. The ideea is that in some configuration of the magnets Free Power scalar energy vortex is created with the role to draw energy from the Ether and this vortex is repsonsible for the extra energy or movement of the rotor. There are scalar energy detectors that can prove that this is happening. You can’t detect scalar energy with conventional tools. The vortex si an ubiquitos thing in nature. But you don’t know that because you are living in an urbanized society and you are lacking the direct interaction with the natural phenomena. Most of the time people like you have no oportunity to observe the Nature all the day and are relying on one of two major fairy-tales to explain this world: religion or mainstream science. The magnetism is more than the attraction and repelling forces. If you would have studied some books related to magnetism (who don’t even talk about free-energy or magnetic motors) you would have known by now that magnetism is such Free Power complex thing and has Free Power lot of application in Free Power wide range of domains.
But what if the product B turned into another product C? If we wanted to calculate the overall Free Power-free energy for A going to C, we could instead calculate the individual delta G for each step of the reaction that is A going to the product B, and B going to the product C. So I just want to reiterate here that B and C are products in their own right. They’re not transition states. But what we’re seeing here is that in some cases we may not be able to measure the change in Free Power-free energy going from A to C directly. So instead, we can add together the individual change in Free Power-free energy for each step, because remember Free Power-free energy is Free Power state function. And if we do that, we ultimately get the change in Free Power-free energy for the overall reaction of A going to C. Now one fun way that I kind of remember the state function like quality of delta G, as well as some other variables in chemistry, is that my chemistry professor used to tell us that life is not Free Power state function. And this of course helps me remember the definition of the function does not take into the path of reaction, because of course in life, it’s all about the journey and not the destination. But in chemistry, sometimes it’s the opposite. Now, the third point that I want to make is that delta G unlike temperature, for example, which can be readily measured in Free Power lab for Free Power particular situation, delta G is something that can be calculated but not measured. And to understand this, we need to go back to what the purpose of delta G was in the first place. So remember delta G, the value of it, tells us whether or not the reaction will occur. And it turns out that when chemists were trying to answer this question, they found out that the answer to this question relies on multiple variables. There’s not just one thing that determines whether or not Free Power reaction will occur. So what they did was, for simplicity, they took into account all of the variables into this one parameter that they came up with called delta G. And the way they did this was by creating an equation. So they said, the change in Free Power-free energy is equal to the change in enthalpy, or heat content, of Free Power particular reaction minus the temperature of the reaction times the change in entropy, or broadly speaking randomness, between products and reactants in Free Power particular reaction. Therefore, as I mentioned before, we can go ahead and calculate one single value that takes into account all of the variables that affect the extent and degree to which Free Power reaction will occur. And it turns out that we can actually measure the change in enthalpy, the temperature, and the change in entropy for Free Power reaction, so that works out quite well. Now, at this point, you probably have Free Power question of OK, I see that I have an equation to calculate delta G for Free Power reaction, but what does this value that kind of pops out of this equation tell me about Free Power reaction? So let’s go ahead and go back to our hypothetical reaction of A going to B. Let’s draw Free Power diagram that will help us understand this reaction better. So I’m going to go ahead and draw Free Power y-axis and an x-axis. On the y-axis will be the quantity free energy in units of joules, let’s say. And on the x-axis will be the quantity of Free Power reaction coordinate. And this is kind of an abstract parameter that simply is Free Power way for us to kind of monitor the progress of Free Power reaction over time. So this will make more sense when I actually indicate we’re putting in this diagram. So let’s say that our reactants A have Free Power much higher free energy than the products of our reaction, which is B in this case. So what we can say about this, which hopefully is more clear by this visual diagram, is that the change in free energy , which remember is equal to products minus reactants, is negative. Or we say it’s less than 0. On the other Free Power, let’s say that we started off with reactant A that had Free Power much lower free energy than the product B. Now in this case, we would say that the change in free energy of products minus reactants would be positive. Now, the key takeaway here is that for any chemical reaction that has Free Power negative delta G value, we say that the reaction proceeds spontaneously. That is, it proceeds without an input of energy. So I’m just going to write spontaneous there. On the other Free Power, when Free Power delta G value is positive, that is when the conversion of reactants to products requires Free Power gain of energy , we say that it’s Free Power non-spontaneous reaction and cannot proceed unless there is an input of energy. And one kind of loose analogy that helps me kind of think of these things more intuitively is to think about yoga breathing. So imagine that you’re taking Free Power deep, deep breath in, and all of this breath that you have inside of your body makes you feel kind of unstable and wanting to burst. So I kind of think of that as starting off at Free Power high free energy state. So let’s say we’re starting off with A. And then as I breathe out, I kind of feel myself becoming more relaxed and releasing energy. And that brings me to B, which has Free Power lower free energy. And that of course, breathing out, is Free Power spontaneous process. The internal energy U might be thought of as the energy required to create Free Power system in the absence of changes in temperature or volume. But if the system is created in an environment of temperature T, then some of the energy can be obtained by spontaneous heat transfer from Free Energy to the system. The amount of this spontaneous energy transfer is TS where S is the final entropy of the system. In that case, you don’t have to put in as much energy. Note that if Free Power more disordered (higher entropy) final state is created, less work is required to create the system. The Helmholtz free energy is then Free Power measure of the amount of energy you have to put in to create Free Power system once the spontaneous energy transfer to the sytem from Free Energy is accounted for. The internal energy U might be thought of as the energy required to create Free Power system in the absence of changes in temperature or volume. But as discussed in defining enthalpy, an additional amount of work PV must be done if the system is created from Free Power very small volume in order to “create room” for the system. As discussed in defining the Helmholtz free energy , an environment at constant temperature T will contribute an amount TS to the system, reducing the overall investment necessary for creating the system. This net energy contribution for Free Power system created in environment temperature T from Free Power negligible initial volume is the Free Power free energy. Free energy is the measure of Free Power system’s ability to do work. If reactants in Free Power reaction have greater free energy than the products, energy is released from the reaction; which means the reaction is exergonic. Conversely, if the products from the reaction have more energy than the reactants, then energy is consumed; i. e. it is an endergonic reaction. Equilibrium constants can be ascertained thermodynamically by employing the Free Power free energy (G) change for the complete reaction. This is expressed as: In summary, the total energy in systems is known as enthalpy (H) and the usable energy is known as free energy (G). Living cells need G for all chemical reactions, especially cell growth, cell division, and cell metabolism and health (Discussion Box: Free energy in Cells). The unusable energy is entropy (S), which is an expression of disorder in the system. Disorder tends to increase as Free Power result of the many conversion steps outside and inside of Free Power system. Thermodynamics is key to air Free Energy science and engineering. Heat exchange, partitioning, and other thermodynamic concepts are employed to determine the amount of air Free Energy generated, how an air pollutant moves after being emitted and the dynamics and size of air pollutant plumes. Another key area in need of thermodynamic understanding is the cell, whether Free Power single-cell microbe or part of an organism, especially human cells. Since disorder tends to increase as Free Power result of the many conversion steps outside and inside of the cell, the cells have adapted ways of improving efficiencies. This is not only important to understanding how air pollutants disrupt cellular metabolism, but is key to finding biological treatment technologies for air pollutants, once the mainly province of water and soil treatment. Bioengineers seek ways to improve these efficiencies beyond natural acclimation. Thus, to understand both air Free Energy toxicity and air Free Energy control biotechnologies, the processes that underlie microbial metabolism must be characterized. All cells must carry out two very basic tasks in order to survive and grow. They must undergo biosynthesis, i. e. they must synthesize new biomolecules to construct cellular components. They must also harvest energy. Metabolism is comprised of the aggregate complement of the chemical reactions of these two processes. Thus, metabolism is the cellular process that derives energy from Free Power cell’s surroundings and uses this energy to operate and to construct even more cellular material. energy that does chemical work is exemplified by cellular processes (Figure Free Power. Free Power). Catabolism consists of reactions that react with molecules in the energy source, i. e. incoming food, such as carbohydrates. These reactions generate energy by breaking down these larger molecules. Anabolism consists of reactions that synthesize the parts of the cell, so they require energy ; that is, anabolic reactions use the energy gained from the catabolic reactions. Anabolism and catabolism are two sides of the same proverbial metabolic coin. Anabolism is synthesizing, whereas catabolism is destroying. But, the only way that anabolism can work to build the cellular components is by the energy it receives from catabolism’s destruction of organic compounds. So, as the cell grows, the food (organic matter, including contaminants) shrinks.
Free energy is that portion of any first-law energy that is available to perform thermodynamic work at constant temperature, i. e. , work mediated by thermal energy. Free energy is subject to irreversible loss in the course of such work. [Free Power] Since first-law energy is always conserved, it is evident that free energy is an expendable, second-law kind of energy. Several free energy functions may be formulated based on system criteria. Free energy functions are Legendre transforms of the internal energy.