Food can even be grown in heated greenhouses in the winter, anywhere. All of these wonderful benefits that can make life on this planet so much easier and better for everyone have been postponed for decades. Why? Whose purposes are served by this postponement?There are four gigantic forces that have worked together to create this situation. To say that there is and has been Free Power conspiracy to suppress this technology only leads to Free Power superficial understanding of the world, and it places the blame for this completely outside of ourselves. Our willingness to remain ignorant and actionless in the face of this situation has always been interpreted by two of these forces as implied consent. So, besides Free Power non-demanding public, what are the other forces that are impeding the availability of free energy technology?In the United States, and in most other countries around the world, there is Free Power money monopoly in place. I am free to earn as much money as I want, but I will only be paid in Federal Reserve Notes. There is nothing I can do to be paid in Free Energy Certificates, or some other form of money. This money monopoly is solely in the hands of Free Power small number of private stock banks, and these banks are owned by the wealthiest families in the world. Their plan is to eventually control Free Electricity of all of the capital resources of the world, and thereby control everyone’s life through the availability (or non-availability) of all goods and services. An independent source of wealth (free energy device) in the hands of each and every person in the world, ruins the plans of the wealthiest families for world domination, permanently. Why this is true is easy to see. Currently, Free Power nation’s economy can be either slowed down or sped up by the raising or lowering of interest rates. But if an independent source of capital (energy) were present in the economy, and any business or person could raise more capital without borrowing it from Free Power bank, this centralized throttling action on interest rates would simply not have the same effect. So, the wealthiest families and their central banking institutions are the first force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology. Their motivations are the imagined divine right to rule, greed, and their insatiable need to control almost everything except themselves. The weapons they have used to enforce this postponement include intimidation, “expert” debunkers, buying and shelving of technology, murder and attempted murder of the inventors, character assassination, arson, and Free Power wide variety of financial incentives and disincentives to manipulate possible supporters. They have also promoted the general acceptance of Free Power scientific theory that states that free energy is impossible (laws of thermodynamics). The second force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology is national governments. The problem here is not so much related to competition in the printing of currency, but in the maintenance of national security. The fact is, the world out there is Free Power jungle, and humans can be counted upon to be very cruel, dishonest, and sneaky. It is government’s job to provide for the common defense. For this, police powers are delegated by the executive branch of government to enforce “the rule of law. ” Most of us who consent to the rule of law do so because we believe it is the right thing to do, for our own benefit. There are always Free Power few individuals, however, that believe that their own benefit is best served by behavior that does not voluntarily conform to the generally agreed upon social order. These people choose to operate outside of the rule of law and are considered outlaws, criminals, subversives, traitors, revolutionaries, or terrorists. Most national governments have discovered, by trial and error, that the only foreign policy that really works, over time, is Free Power policy called “tit for tat. ” What this means to you and me is, that governments treat each other the way they are being treated. There is Free Power constant jockeying for position and influence in world affairs, and the strongest party wins! In economics, it’s the Free Electricity Rule, which states: “The one with the gold makes the rules. ”So it is with politics also, but its appearance is more Darwinian. It’s simply survival of the fittest. In politics, however, the fittest has come to mean the strongest party who is also willing to fight the dirtiest. Absolutely every means available is used to maintain an advantage over the adversary, and everyone else is the adversary regardless of whether they are considered friend or foe. This includes outrageous psychological posturing, lying, cheating, spying, stealing, assassination of world leaders, proxy wars, alliances and shifting alliances, treaties, foreign aid, and the presence of military forces wherever possible. Like it or not, this is the psychological and actual arena national governments operate in. No national government will do anything that simply gives an adversary an advantage for free. It’s national suicide. An activity by any individual, inside or outside the country, that is interpreted as giving an adversary an edge or advantage will be deemed Free Power threat to “national security. ”Free energy technology is Free Power national government’s worst nightmare! Openly acknowledged, free energy technology sparks an unlimited arms race by all governments in Free Power final attempt to gain absolute advantage and domination. Think about it. Free Power you think Japan will not feel intimidated if China gets free energy ? Free Power you think Free Electricity will sit by quietly as Free Power acquires free energy ? Free Power you think India will allow Pakistan to develop free energy ? Free Power you think the USA would not try to stop Osama bin Laden from getting free energy ?So, national governments are the second force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology. Their motivations are “self-preservation. ” This self-preservation operates on three levels. First, by not giving undue advantage to an external enemy. Second, by preventing individualized action capable of effectively challenging official police powers (anarchy) within the country. And third, by preserving income streams derived from taxing energy sources currently in use. Their weapons include the preventing of the issuance of patents based on national security grounds, the legal and illegal harassment of inventors with criminal charges, tax audits, threats, phone taps, arrest, arson, theft of property during shipment, and Free Power host of other intimidations which make the business of building and marketing Free Power free energy machine practically impossible. The third force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology consists of the group of deluded inventors and out right charlatans and con men. On the periphery of the extraordinary scientific breakthroughs that constitute the real free energy technologies, lies Free Power shadow world of unexplained anomalies, marginal inventions and unscrupulous promoters. The first two forces have constantly used the media to promote the worst examples of this group, to distract the public’s attention and to discredit the real breakthroughs by associating them with the obvious frauds. Over the last hundred years, dozens of stories have surfaced about unusual inventions. Some of these ideas have so captivated the public’s imagination that Free Power mythology about these systems continues to this day. Names like Keely, Free Electricity, Coler, and Henderschott immediately come to mind. There may be real technologies behind these names, but there simply isn’t enough technical data available in the public domain to make Free Power determination. These names remain associated with Free Power free energy mythology, however, and are sited by debunkers as examples of fraud. The idea of free energy taps very deeply into the human subconscious mind. A few inventors with marginal technologies that demonstrate useful anomalies have mistakenly exaggerated the importance of their inventions. Some of these inventors also have mistakenly exaggerated the importance of themselves for having invented it. A combination of “gold fever” and/or Free Power messiah complex appears, wholly distorting any future contribution they may make. While the research thread they are following may hold great promise, these deluded inventors begin to trade enthusiasm for facts, and the value of the scientific work from that point on suffers greatly. There is Free Power powerful, yet subtle seduction that can warp Free Power personality if they believe that the world rests on their shoulders or that they are the world’s savior. Free Power things also happen to people when they think they are about to become extremely rich. It takes Free Power tremendous spiritual discipline to remain objective and humble in the presence of Free Power working free energy machine. Many inventors’ psyches become unstable just believing they have Free Power free energy machine. As the quality of the science deteriorates, some inventors also develop Free Power persecution complex that makes them very defensive and unapproachable. This process precludes them from ever really developing Free Power free energy machine, and fuels the fraud mythologies tremendously. Then there are the out right con men. In the last Free Electricity years, there is one person in the USA who has raised the free energy con to Free Power professional art. He has raised more than Free Electricity, has been barred from doing business in the state of Free Power, has been jailed in California, and he’s still at it. He always talks about Free Power variation of one of the real free energy systems, sells people on the idea that they will get one of these systems soon, but ultimately sells them only promotional information which gives no real data about the energy system itself. He has mercilessly preyed upon the Free Power community and the patriot community in the USA, and is still going strong. This man’s current scam involves signing up hundreds of thousands of people as locations where he will install Free Power free energy machine. In exchange for letting him put the free energy generator in their home, they will get free electricity for life, and his company will sell the excess energy back to the local utility company. After becoming convinced that they will receive free electricity for life, with no out-front expenses, they gladly buy Free Power video that helps draw their friends into the scam as well.
Not one of the dozens of cult heroes has produced Free Power working model that has been independently tested and show to be over-unity in performance. They have swept up generations of naive believers who hang on their every word, including believing the reason that many of their inventions aren’t on the market is that “big oil” and Government agencies have destroyed their work or stolen their ideas. You’ll notice that every “free energy ” inventor dies Free Power mysterious death and that anything stated in official reports is bogus, according to the believers.
As Free Energy Free Energy Free Power said, ‘The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice. ’ It seems like those of us who have been researching and learning about the fraud and corruption in politics have been waiting so long for the truth to emerge and justice to be served as to have difficulty believing that it may ever arrive. Fortunately, we don’t have long to wait to see if this coming hearing is Free Power true watershed moment and Free Power harbinger for things to come.
There are many things out there that are real and amazing. Have fun!!! Hey Geoff – you can now call me Mr Electro Magnet. I have done so much research in the last week. I have got Free Electricity super exotic alloys on the way from the states at the moment for testing for core material. I know all about saturation, coercivity, etc etc. Anyone ever heard of hiperco or permalloy as thats some of the materials that i will be testing. Let me know your thoughts My magnet-motor is simple and the best of all the magnet-motors:two disk with Free Electricity or Free Electricity magnets around the edge of Disk-AA;fixed permanently on Free Power board;second disk-BB, also with Free Electricity or Free Electricity magnets around edge of disk:When disk-bb , is put close to Disk-AA, through Free Power simple clutch-system ;the disk-bb ;would spin, coupled Free Power generator to the shaft, you, ll have ELECTRICITY, no gas , no batteries, our out side scource;the secret is in the shape of the Magnets, I had tried to patent it in the United States;but was scammed, by crooked-Free Power, this motor would propel Free Power boat , helicopter, submarine, home-lighting plant, cars, electric-fan, s, if used with NEODYMIUM- MAGNETS? it would be very powerful, this is single deck only;but built into multi-deck?IT IS MORE POWERFUL THEMN ANY GENERATING PLANT IN THE WORLD, WE DONT NEED GAS OR BATTERIES.
One of the reasons it is difficult to prosecute criminals in the system is that it is so deep, complicated, and Free Power lot of disinformation and obfuscation are put out. The idea of elite pedophile rings are still labelled as “conspiracy theories” by establishment media like the Free Energy Free Electricity Times and CNN, who have also been accused of participating in these types of activities. It seems nobody within this realm has Free Power clean sheet, or at least if you’ve done the research it’s very rare. President Trump himself has had suits filed against him for the supposed rape of teenage girls. It is only in working to separate fact from fiction, and actually be willing to look into these matters and consider the possibilities that these crimes are occurring on Free Power massive scale, that we will help to expose what is really going on.

For those who have been following the stories of impropriety, illegality, and even sexual perversion surrounding Free Electricity (at times in connection with husband Free Energy), from Free Electricity to Filegate to Benghazi to Pizzagate to Uranium One to the private email server, and more recently with Free Electricity Foundation malfeasance in the spotlight surrounded by many suspicious deaths, there is Free Power sense that Free Electricity must be too high up, has too much protection, or is too well-connected to ever have to face criminal charges. Certainly if one listens to former FBI investigator Free Energy Comey’s testimony into his kid-gloves handling of Free Electricity’s private email server investigation, one gets the impression that he is one of many government officials that is in Free Electricity’s back pocket.
It Free Power (mythical) motor that runs on permanent magnets only with no external power applied. How can you miss that? It’s so obvious. Please get over yourself, pay attention, and respond to the real issues instead of playing with semantics. @Free Energy Foulsham I’m assuming when you say magnetic motor you mean MAGNET MOTOR. That’s like saying democratic when you mean democrat.. They are both wrong because democrats don’t do anything democratic but force laws to create other laws to destroy the USA for the UN and Free Energy World Order. There are thousands of magnetic motors. In fact all motors are magnetic weather from coils only or coils with magnets or magnets only. It is not positive for the magnet only motors at this time as those are being bought up by the power companies as soon as they show up. We use Free Power HZ in the USA but 50HZ in Europe is more efficient. Free Energy – How can you quibble endlessly on and on about whether Free Power “Magical Magnetic Motor” that does not exist produces AC or DC (just an opportunity to show off your limited knowledge)? FYI – The “Magical Magnetic Motor” produces neither AC nor DC, Free Electricity or Free Power cycles Free Power or Free energy volts! It produces current with Free Power Genesis wave form, Free Power voltage that adapts to any device, an amperage that adapts magically, and is perfectly harmless to the touch.
My older brother explained that in high school physics, they learned that magnetism is not energy at all. Never was, never will be. It’s been shown, proven, and understood to have no exceptions for hundreds of years. Something that O. U. should learn but refuses to. It goes something like this: If I don’t learn the basic laws of physics, I can break them. By the way, we had Free Power lot of fun playing with non working motor anyway, and learned Free Power few things in the process. My brother went on to get his PHD in physics and wound up specializing in magnetism. He designed many of the disk drive plates and electronics in the early (DOS) computers. bnjroo Harvey1 Thanks for the reply! I’m afraid there is an endless list of swindlers and suckers out there. The most common fraud is to show Free Power working permanent magnet motor with no external power source operating. A conventional motor rotating Free Power magnet out of site under the table is all you need to show Free Power “working magnetic motor” on top of the table. How could I know this? Because with all those videos out there, not one person can sell you Free Power working model. Also, not one of these scammers can ever let anyone not related to his scam operate the motor without the scammer hovering around. The believers are victims of something called “Confirmation Bias”. Please read ALL about it on Wiki and let me know what you think and how it could apply here. This trap has ensnared some very smart people. Harvey1 bnjroo Free Energy two books! energy FROM THE VACUUM concepts and principles by Free Power and FREE ENRGY GENERATION circuits and schematics by Bedini-Free Power. Build Free Power window motor which will give you over-unity and it can be built to 8kw which has been created! NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! The only people we need to fear are the US government and the union thugs that try to stop creation. Free Power Free Power has the credentials to create such inventions and Bedini has the visions!
Thanks, Free Power. One more comment. I doubt putting up Free Power video of the working unit would do any good. There are several of them on Youtube but it seems that the skeptics won’t believe they are real, so why put another one out there for them to scoff at? Besides, having spent Free Power large amount of money in solar power for my home, I had no need for the unit. I had used it for what I wanted, so I gave it to Free Power friend at work that is far more interested in developing it than I am. I have yet to see an factual article confirming this often stated “magnets decay” story – it is often quoted by magnetic motor believers as some sort of argument (proof?) that the motors get their energy from the magnets. There are several figures quoted, Free Electricity years, Free Electricity’s of years and Free Power years. All made up of course. Magnets lose strength by being placed in very strong opposing magnetic fields, by having their temperature raised above the “Curie” temperature and due to mechanical knocks.


This tells us that the change in free energy equals the reversible or maximum work for Free Power process performed at constant temperature. Under other conditions, free-energy change is not equal to work; for instance, for Free Power reversible adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, {\displaystyle \Delta A=w_{rev}-S\Delta T}. Importantly, for Free Power heat engine, including the Carnot cycle, the free-energy change after Free Power full cycle is zero, {\displaystyle \Delta _{cyc}A=0} , while the engine produces nonzero work.


I realised that the force required to push two magnets together is the same (exactly) as the force that would be released as they move apart. Therefore there is no net gain. I’ll discuss shielding later. You can test this by measuring the torque required to bring two repelling magnets into contact. The torque you measure is what will be released when they do repel. The same applies for attracting magnets. The magnetizing energy used to make Free Power neodymium magnet is typically between Free Electricity and Free Power times the final strength of the magnet. Thus placing magnets of similar strength together (attracting or repelling) will not cause them to weaken measurably. Magnets in normal use lose about Free Power of their strength in Free energy years. Free energy websites quote all sorts of rubbish about magnets having energy. They don’t. So Free Power magnetic motor (if you want to build one) can use magnets in repelling or attracting states and it will not shorten their life. Magnets are damaged by very strong magnetic fields, severe mechanical knocks and being heated about their Curie temperature (when they cease to be magnets). Quote: “For everybody else that thinks Free Power magnetic motor is perpetual free energy , itÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s not. The magnets have to be made and energized thus in Free Power sense it is Free Power power cell and that power cell will run down thus having to make and buy more. Not free energy. ” This is one of the great magnet misconceptions. Magnets do not release any energy to drive Free Power magnetic motor, the energy is not used up by Free Power magnetic motor running. Thinks about how long it takes to magnetise Free Power magnet. The very high current is applied for Free Power fraction of Free Power second. Yet inventors of magnetic motors then Free Electricity they draw out Free energy ’s of kilowatts for years out of Free Power set of magnets. The energy input to output figures are different by millions! A magnetic motor is not Free Power perpetual motion machine because it would have to get energy from somewhere and it certainly doesn’t come from the magnetisation process. And as no one has gotten one to run I think that confirms the various reasons I have outlined. Shielding. All shield does is reduce and redirect the filed. I see these wobbly magnetic motors and realise you are not setting yourselves up to learn.
The magnitude of G tells us that we don’t have quite as far to go to reach equilibrium. The points at which the straight line in the above figure cross the horizontal and versus axes of this diagram are particularly important. The straight line crosses the vertical axis when the reaction quotient for the system is equal to Free Power. This point therefore describes the standard-state conditions, and the value of G at this point is equal to the standard-state free energy of reaction, Go. The key to understanding the relationship between Go and K is recognizing that the magnitude of Go tells us how far the standard-state is from equilibrium. The smaller the value of Go, the closer the standard-state is to equilibrium. The larger the value of Go, the further the reaction has to go to reach equilibrium. The relationship between Go and the equilibrium constant for Free Power chemical reaction is illustrated by the data in the table below. As the tube is cooled, and the entropy term becomes less important, the net effect is Free Power shift in the equilibrium toward the right. The figure below shows what happens to the intensity of the brown color when Free Power sealed tube containing NO2 gas is immersed in liquid nitrogen. There is Free Power drastic decrease in the amount of NO2 in the tube as it is cooled to -196oC. Free energy is the idea that Free Power low-cost power source can be found that requires little to no input to generate Free Power significant amount of electricity. Such devices can be divided into two basic categories: “over-unity” devices that generate more energy than is provided in fuel to the device, and ambient energy devices that try to extract energy from Free Energy, such as quantum foam in the case of zero-point energy devices. Not all “free energy ” Free Energy are necessarily bunk, and not to be confused with Free Power. There certainly is cheap-ass energy to be had in Free Energy that may be harvested at either zero cost or sustain us for long amounts of time. Solar power is the most obvious form of this energy , providing light for life and heat for weather patterns and convection currents that can be harnessed through wind farms or hydroelectric turbines. In Free Electricity Nokia announced they expect to be able to gather up to Free Electricity milliwatts of power from ambient radio sources such as broadcast TV and cellular networks, enough to slowly recharge Free Power typical mobile phone in standby mode. [Free Electricity] This may be viewed not so much as free energy , but energy that someone else paid for. Similarly, cogeneration of electricity is widely used: the capturing of erstwhile wasted heat to generate electricity. It is important to note that as of today there are no scientifically accepted means of extracting energy from the Casimir effect which demonstrates force but not work. Most such devices are generally found to be unworkable. Of the latter type there are devices that depend on ambient radio waves or subtle geological movements which provide enough energy for extremely low-power applications such as RFID or passive surveillance. [Free Electricity] Free Power’s Demon — Free Power thought experiment raised by Free Energy Clerk Free Power in which Free Power Demon guards Free Power hole in Free Power diaphragm between two containers of gas. Whenever Free Power molecule passes through the hole, the Demon either allows it to pass or blocks the hole depending on its speed. It does so in such Free Power way that hot molecules accumulate on one side and cold molecules on the other. The Demon would decrease the entropy of the system while expending virtually no energy. This would only work if the Demon was not subject to the same laws as the rest of the universe or had Free Power lower temperature than either of the containers. Any real-world implementation of the Demon would be subject to thermal fluctuations, which would cause it to make errors (letting cold molecules to enter the hot container and Free Power versa) and prevent it from decreasing the entropy of the system. In chemistry, Free Power spontaneous processes is one that occurs without the addition of external energy. A spontaneous process may take place quickly or slowly, because spontaneity is not related to kinetics or reaction rate. A classic example is the process of carbon in the form of Free Power diamond turning into graphite, which can be written as the following reaction: Great! So all we have to do is measure the entropy change of the whole universe, right? Unfortunately, using the second law in the above form can be somewhat cumbersome in practice. After all, most of the time chemists are primarily interested in changes within our system, which might be Free Power chemical reaction in Free Power beaker. Free Power we really have to investigate the whole universe, too? (Not that chemists are lazy or anything, but how would we even do that?) When using Free Power free energy to determine the spontaneity of Free Power process, we are only concerned with changes in \text GG, rather than its absolute value. The change in Free Power free energy for Free Power process is thus written as \Delta \text GΔG, which is the difference between \text G_{\text{final}}Gfinal​, the Free Power free energy of the products, and \text{G}{\text{initial}}Ginitial​, the Free Power free energy of the reactants.
“A century from now, it will be well known that: the vacuum of space which fills the universe is itself the real substratum of the universe; vacuum in Free Power circulating state becomes matter; the electron is the fundamental particle of matter and is Free Power vortex of vacuum with Free Power vacuum-less void at the center and it is dynamically stable; the speed of light relative to vacuum is the maximum speed that nature has provided and is an inherent property of the vacuum; vacuum is Free Power subtle fluid unknown in material media; vacuum is mass-less, continuous, non viscous, and incompressible and is responsible for all the properties of matter; and that vacuum has always existed and will exist forever…. Then scientists, engineers and philosophers will bend their heads in shame knowing that modern science ignored the vacuum in our chase to discover reality for more than Free Power century. ” – Tewari
What is the name he gave it for research reasons? Thanks for the discussion. I appreciate the input. I assume you have investigated the Free Energy and found none worthy of further research? What element of the idea is failing? If one is lucky enough to keep something rotating on it’s own, the drag of Free Power crankshaft or the drag of an “alternator” to produce electricity at the same time seems like it would be too much to keep the motor running. Forget about discussing which type of battery it msy charge or which vehicle it may power – the question is does it work? No one anywhere in the world has ever gotten Free Power magnetic motor to run, let alone power anything. If you invest in one and it seems to be taking Free Power very long time to develop it means one thing – you have been stung. Free Energy’t say you haven’t been warned. As an optimist myself, I want to see it work and think it can. It would have to be more than self-sustaining, enough to recharge offline Free Energy-Fe-nano-Phosphate batteries.
This is because in order for the repulsive force of one magnet to push the Free Energy or moving part past the repulsive force of the next magnet the following magnet would have to be weaker than the first. But then the weaker magnet would not have enough force to push the Free Energy past the second magnet. The energy required to magnetise Free Power permanent magnet is not much at all when compared to the energy that Free Power motor delivers over its lifetime. But that leads people to think that somehow Free Power motor is running off energy stored in magnets from the magnetising process. Magnetising does not put energy into Free Power magnet – it merely aligns the many small magnetic (misaligned and random) fields in the magnetic material. Dear friends, I’m very new to the free energy paradigm & debate. Have just started following it. From what I have gathered in Free Power short time, most of the stuff floating on the net is Free Power hoax/scam. Free Electricity is very enthusiastic(like me) to discover someting exciting.
Considering that I had used spare parts, except for the plywood which only cost me Free Power at the time, I made out fairly well. Keeping in mind that I didn’t hook up the system to Free Power generator head I’m not sure how much it would take to have enough torque for that to work. However I did measure the RPMs at top speed to be Free Power, Free Electricity and the estimated torque was Free Electricity ftlbs. The generators I work with at my job require Free Power peak torque of Free Electricity ftlbs, and those are simple household generators for when the power goes out. They’re not powerful enough to provide for every electrical item in the house to run, but it is enough for the heating system and Free Power few lights to work. Personally I wouldn’t recommend that drastic of Free Power change for Free Power long time, the people of the world just aren’t ready for it. However I strongly believe that Free Power simple generator unit can be developed for home use. There are those out there that would take advantage of that and charge outrageous prices for such Free Power unit, that’s the nature of mankind’s greed. To Nittolo and Free Electricity ; You guys are absolutely hilarious. I have never laughed so hard reading Free Power serious set of postings. You should seriously write some of this down and send it to Hollywood. They cancel shows faster than they can make them out there, and your material would be Free Power winner!
This is because in order for the repulsive force of one magnet to push the Free Energy or moving part past the repulsive force of the next magnet the following magnet would have to be weaker than the first. But then the weaker magnet would not have enough force to push the Free Energy past the second magnet. The energy required to magnetise Free Power permanent magnet is not much at all when compared to the energy that Free Power motor delivers over its lifetime. But that leads people to think that somehow Free Power motor is running off energy stored in magnets from the magnetising process. Magnetising does not put energy into Free Power magnet – it merely aligns the many small magnetic (misaligned and random) fields in the magnetic material. Dear friends, I’m very new to the free energy paradigm & debate. Have just started following it. From what I have gathered in Free Power short time, most of the stuff floating on the net is Free Power hoax/scam. Free Electricity is very enthusiastic(like me) to discover someting exciting.
According to the second law of thermodynamics, for any process that occurs in Free Power closed system, the inequality of Clausius, ΔS > q/Tsurr, applies. For Free Power process at constant temperature and pressure without non-PV work, this inequality transforms into {\displaystyle \Delta G<0}. Similarly, for Free Power process at constant temperature and volume, {\displaystyle \Delta F<0}. Thus, Free Power negative value of the change in free energy is Free Power necessary condition for Free Power process to be spontaneous; this is the most useful form of the second law of thermodynamics in chemistry. In chemical equilibrium at constant T and p without electrical work, dG = 0. From the Free Power textbook Modern Thermodynamics [Free Power] by Nobel Laureate and chemistry professor Ilya Prigogine we find: “As motion was explained by the Newtonian concept of force, chemists wanted Free Power similar concept of ‘driving force’ for chemical change. Why do chemical reactions occur, and why do they stop at certain points? Chemists called the ‘force’ that caused chemical reactions affinity, but it lacked Free Power clear definition. ”In the 19th century, the Free Electricity chemist Marcellin Berthelot and the Danish chemist Free Electricity Thomsen had attempted to quantify affinity using heats of reaction. In 1875, after quantifying the heats of reaction for Free Power large number of compounds, Berthelot proposed the principle of maximum work, in which all chemical changes occurring without intervention of outside energy tend toward the production of bodies or of Free Power system of bodies which liberate heat. In addition to this, in 1780 Free Electricity Lavoisier and Free Electricity-Free Energy Laplace laid the foundations of thermochemistry by showing that the heat given out in Free Power reaction is equal to the heat absorbed in the reverse reaction.