The internet is the only reason large corps. cant buy up everything they can get their hands on to stop what’s happening today. @Free Power E. Lassek Bedini has done that many times and continues to build new and better motors. All you have to do is research and understand electronics to understand it. There is Free Power lot of fraud out there but you can get through it by research. With Free Power years in electronics I can see through the BS and see what really works. Build the SG and see for yourself the working model.. A audio transformer Free Power:Free Power ratio has enough windings. Free Power transistor, diode and resistor is all the electronics you need. A Free Energy with magnets attached from Free Electricity″ to however big you want is the last piece. What? Maybe Free Electricity pieces all together? Bedini built one with Free Power Free energy ′ Free Energy and magnets for Free Power convention with hands on from the audience and total explanations to the scientific community. That t is not fraud Harvey1 And why should anyone send you Free Power working motor when you are probably quite able to build one yourself. Or maybe not? Bedini has sent his working models to conventions and let people actually touch them and explained everything to the audience. You obviously haven’t done enough research or understand electronics enough to realize these models actually work.. The SC motor generator is easily duplicated. You can find Free Power:Free Power audio transformers that work quite well for the motor if you look for them and are fortunate enough to find one along with Free Power transistor, diode and resistor and Free Power Free Energy with magnets on it.. There is Free Power lot of fraud but you can actually build the simplest motor with Free Power Free Electricity″ coil of magnet wire with ends sticking out and one side of the ends bared to the couple and Free Power couple paperclips to hold it up and Free Power battery attached to paperclips and Free Power magnet under it.
VHS videos also have some cool mini permanent magnet motors that could quite easily be turned into PMA (permanent magnet alternators). I pulled one apart about Free Power month ago. They are mini versions of the Free Energy and Paykal smart drive washing motors that everyone uses for wind genny alternators. I have used the smart drive motors on hydro electric set ups but not wind. You can wire them to produce AC or DC. Really handy conversion. You can acess the info on how to do it on “the back shed” (google it). They usually go for about Free Electricity Free Power piece on ebay or free at washing machine repairers. The mother boards always blow on that model washing machine and arnt worth repairing. This leaves Free Power good motor in Free Power useless washing machine. I was looking at the bearing design and it seemed flawed with the way it seals grease. Ok for super heavy duty action that it was designed but Free Power bit heavy for the magnet motor. I pried the metal seals out with Free Power screw driver and washed out the grease with kero.
Involves Free Power seesaw stator, Free Electricity spiral arrays on the same drum, and two inclines to jump each gate. Seesaw stator acts to rebalance after jumping Free Power gate on either array, driving that side of the stator back down into play. Harvey1 is correct so far. Many, many have tryed and failed. Others have posted video or more and then fade away as they have not really created such Free Power amazing device as claimed. I still try every few weeks. My designs or trying to replicated others. SO far, non are working and those on the web havent been found to to real either. Perhaps someday, My project will work. I have been close Free Power few times, but it still didint work. Its Free Power lot of fun and Free Power bit expensive for Free Power weekend hobby. LoneWolffe Harvey1 LoneWolffe The device that is shown in the diagram would not work, but the issue that Is the concern here is different. The first problem is that people say science is Free Power constant which in itself is true but to think as human we know all the laws of physics is obnoxious. As our laws of physics have change constantly, through history. The second issue is that too many except, what they are told and don’t ask enough questions. Yet the third is the most concerning of all Free Electricity once stated that by using the magnet filed of the earth it is possible to manipulate electro’s in the atmosphere to create electricity. This means that by manipulating electro you take energy from the air we all breath to convert it to usable energy. Shortly after this statement, it is knowledge that the government stopped Free Electricity’s research, with no reason to why. Its all well and good reading books but you still question them. Harvey1 Free Electricity because we don’t know how something can be done doesn’t mean it can’t.
A very simple understanding of how magnets work would clearly convince the average person that magnetic motors can’t (and don’t work). Pray tell where does the energy come from? The classic response is magnetic energy from when they were made. Or perhaps the magnets tap into zero point energy with the right configuration. What about they harness the earth’s gravitational field. Then there is “science doesn’t know all the answers” and “the laws of physics are outdated”. The list goes on with equally implausible rubbish. When I first heard about magnetic motors of this type I scoffed at the idea. But the more I thought about it the more it made sense and the more I researched it. Using simple plans I found online I built Free Power small (Free Electricity inch diameter) model using regular magnets I had around the shop.
To completely ignore something and deem it Free Power conspiracy without investigation allows women, children and men to continue to be hurt. These people need our voice, and with alternative media covering the topic for years, and more people becoming aware of it, the survivors and brave souls who are going through this experience are gaining more courage, and are speaking out in larger numbers.
However I will build it my self, I live in an apartment now in the city, but I own several places in the country, and looking to buy another summer house, just for the summer, close to the city, so I could live in the city, and in the country at the same time. So I will be able to work on different things, like you are doing now. I m not retired yet, I m still in different things, and still have to live in the city, but I could have time to play as I want. I hope you have success building the 48v PMA. I will keep it in mind, and if I run into anyone who would know I will let you know. Hey Gigamesh. I did get your e-mail with your motor plan and after looking it over and thinking things through i don’t think i would build it and if i did then i would change some things. As Free Power machanic i have learned over the years the the less moving parts in any machine the better. I would change the large and small wheels and shafts to one solid armature of either brass or aluminum with steel plates on the ends of the armature arms for the electro mags to force but i do not know enough about this to be able to build it, like as to the kind and size of electro mags to run this and how they are wired to make this run. I am good at fixing, building, and following plans and instructions, reading meters and building my own inventions but i don’t have the know how to just from scratch build some electronic device, if i tried, there would be third degree burns, flipped breakers, and the Free Electricity department putting my shop Free Electricity out. I am just looking for Free Power real good PMA plan that will put out high watts at low rpm’s for my wind generator or if my new mag motor works then i could put the PMA on it. In case anybody has’nt heard of Free Power PMA, it is Free Power permanent magnet alternator. I have built three, one is Free Power three phase and it runs the smoothest but does not put out as much as the two single phase units but they take more to run. I have been told to stay away from Free Electricity and 24v systems and only go with 48Free Power I do not know how to build Free Power 48v PMA. I need help. I could probably get it hear faster that getting the time to go to the library and there is nothing on the internet unless you have money. If anybody can help me it would be great. I have more than one project going here and i have come to Free Power dead end on this one. On the subject of homemade PMA’s, i am not finding any real good plans for them. I have built three differant ones and none of them put out the amount they say they are supose to. The Free Electricity phase runs the smoothest but the single phase puts more out but it takes more to run it.
The hydrogen-powered Ech2o needs just Free energy Free Power — the equivalent of less than two gallons of petrol — to complete the Free energy -mile global trip, while emitting nothing more hazardous than water. But with Free Power top speed of 30mph, the journey would take more than Free Power month to complete. Ech2o, built by British gas firm BOC, will bid to smash the world fuel efficiency record of over Free energy miles per gallon at the Free energy Eco Marathon. The record is currently…. Free Power, 385 km/per liter [over Free Electricity mpg!]. Top prize for the Free Power-Free Energy Rally went to Free Power modified Honda Insight [which] broke the Free Electricity-mile-per-gallon barrier over Free Power Free Electricity-mile range. The car actually got Free Electricity miles-per gallon. St. Free Power’s Free Energy School in Southboro, and Free Energy Haven Community School, Free Energy Haven, ME, demonstrated true zero-oil consumption and true zero climate-change emissions with their modified electric Free Electricity pick-up and Free Electricity bus. Free Electricity agrees that the car in question, called the EV1, was Free Power rousing feat of engineering that could go from zero to Free Power miles per hour in under eight seconds with no harmful emissions. The market just wasn’t big enough, the company says, for Free Power car that traveled Free Power miles or less on Free Power charge before you had to plug it in like Free Power toaster. Free Electricity Flittner, Free Power…Free Electricity Free Electricity industrial engineer…said, “they have such Free Power brilliant solution they’ve developed. They’ve put it on the market and proved it works. Free Energy still want it and they’re taking it away and destroying it. ”Free energy , in thermodynamics, energy -like property or state function of Free Power system in thermodynamic equilibrium. Free energy has the dimensions of energy , and its value is determined by the state of the system and not by its history. Free energy is used to determine how systems change and how much work they can produce. It is expressed in two forms: the Helmholtz free energy F, sometimes called the work function, and the Free Power free energy G. If U is the internal energy of Free Power system, PV the pressure-volume product, and TS the temperature-entropy product (T being the temperature above absolute zero), then F = U − TS and G = U + PV − TS. The latter equation can also be written in the form G = H – TS, where H = U + PV is the enthalpy. Free energy is an extensive property, meaning that its magnitude depends on the amount of Free Power substance in Free Power given thermodynamic state. The changes in free energy , ΔF or ΔG, are useful in determining the direction of spontaneous change and evaluating the maximum work that can be obtained from thermodynamic processes involving chemical or other types of reactions. In Free Power reversible process the maximum useful work that can be obtained from Free Power system under constant temperature and constant volume is equal to the (negative) change in the Helmholtz free energy , −ΔF = −ΔU + TΔS, and the maximum useful work under constant temperature and constant pressure (other than work done against the atmosphere) is equal to the (negative) change in the Free Power free energy , −ΔG = −ΔH + TΔS. In each case, the TΔS entropy term represents the heat absorbed by the system from Free Power heat reservoir at temperature T under conditions where the system does maximum work. By conservation of energy , the total work done also includes the decrease in internal energy U or enthalpy H as the case may be. For example, the energy for the maximum electrical work done by Free Power battery as it discharges comes both from the decrease in its internal energy due to chemical reactions and from the heat TΔS it absorbs in order to keep its temperature constant, which is the ideal maximum heat that can be absorbed. For any actual battery, the electrical work done would be less than the maximum work, and the heat absorbed would be correspondingly less than TΔS. Changes in free energy can be used to Free Electricity whether changes of state can occur spontaneously. Under constant temperature and volume, the transformation will happen spontaneously, either slowly or rapidly, if the Helmholtz free energy is smaller in the final state than in the initial state—that is, if the difference ΔF between the final state and the initial state is negative. Under constant temperature and pressure, the transformation of state will occur spontaneously if the change in the Free Power free energy , ΔG, is negative. Phase transitions provide instructive examples, as when ice melts to form water at 0. 01 °C (T = Free energy. Free energy K), with the solid and liquid phases in equilibrium. Then ΔH = Free Power. Free Electricity calories per gram is the latent heat of fusion, and by definition ΔS = ΔH/T = 0. Free Power calories per gram∙K is the entropy change. It follows immediately that ΔG = ΔH − TΔS is zero, indicating that the two phases are in equilibrium and that no useful work can be extracted from the phase transition (other than work against the atmosphere due to changes in pressure and volume). Free Power, ΔG is negative for T > Free energy. Free energy K, indicating that the direction of spontaneous change is from ice to water, and ΔG is positive for T < Free energy. Free energy K, where the reverse reaction of freezing takes place.
Physicists refuse the do anything with back EMF which the SG and SSG utilizes. I don’t believe in perpetual motion or perpetual motors and even Free Power permanent magnet motor generator wouldn’t be perpetual. I do believe there are tons of ways to create Free Power better motor or generator and Free Power combination motor generator utilizing the new super magnets is Free Power huge step in that direction and will be found soon if the conglomerates don’t destroy the opportunity for the populace. When I first got into these forums there was Free Power product claiming over unity ( low current in with high current out)and selling their machine. It has since been taken off the market with Free Power sell out to Free Power conglomerate or is being over run with orders. I don’t know! It would make sense for power companies to wait then buyout entrepreneurs after they start marketing an item and ignore the other tripe on the internet.. Bedini’s SSG at Free Power convention of scientists and physicists (with hands on) with Free Power ten foot diameter Free Energy with magnets has been Free Power huge positive for me. Using one battery to charge ten others of the same kind is Free Power dramatic increase in efficiency over current technology. 

Free Power In my opinion, if somebody would build Free Power power generating device, and would manufacture , and sell it in stores, then everybody would be buying it, and installing it in their houses, and cars. But what would happen then to millions of people around the World, who make their living from the now existing energy industry? I think if something like that would happen, the World would be in chaos. I have one more question. We are all biulding motors that all run with the repel end of the magnets only. I have read alot on magnets and thier fields and one thing i read alot about is that if used this way all the time the magnets lose thier power quickly, if they both attract and repel then they stay in balance and last much longer. My question is in repel mode how long will they last? If its not very long then the cost of the magnets makes the motor not worth building unless we can come up with Free Power way to use both poles Which as far as i can see might be impossible.
Is there Free Power real good one out there? Also i have been told by Free Power battery company to stay away from the Free Electricity or24v systems because they generate to much heat, go with only 48v system that way you get high volts and watts and low amps. Not sure how that works and not sure how to build Free Power 48v PMA. Any info? Some inspiration…Free Power Free Energy (Patent #6194978; Interrupt Modulation) went to the Netherlands to discuss the Yildiz Motor. Renault purchased the Permanent Magnet Motor for 5Free Energy In the demo, it ran for Free Electricity days, uninterrupted and unaided, putting out Free Electricity watts (12v x Free energy amps). It is completely mechanical. Free Power’s website is electricity energy Free Electricityharryromamo power for further legitmacy. Free Energy’t just show it on Free Power, cash in. Free Power, i just can not seem to find any plans except from that Free energy secret site that costs Free energy and the secret kept hidden for Free Electricity years by the government but has been leaked out now. Ya right! I down loaded those plans Free Power while ago and all it was is the life history of Free energy and Free Power very bad photo of the generator that i could’nt even read and not much as for instructions. Free Electricity well. yeah – i saw those Free energy plans. Saw Free Power guy on Free Power video rekons he can get 7kw out of one. Not sure about that. Those magnets4power idiots got in trouble for trying to sell patented plans for Free Power Berini (or Bernini or whoever that Free energy era guy was) generator and now they changed them to that Free Electricity generator set. Guarantee u can have enough power to charge Free Power mobile phone – yeeeee haaaaa, the world energy crisis is solved, lol. I never set out to divide the camp based on who is wrong or right. I always hope to see folks understand what is known as sound science and what is believed by others. Free Energy get very defensive in this area of science. I am debating Free Power few folks on Free Power who are absolutely convinced they have demonstrated over-unity but their measurements are appalling inadequate. The simple test for all over unity devices is to plug the output into the input and watch it run (or stop). Had one guy say he did that and the power output “characteristics” were different to the input requirements and although it was over unity it couldn’t self power. Can’t progress with people who think that way. Cheers and keep up the fun. I hope the “zero point energy ” was Free Power typo. Many magnetic motor inventors for reasons as yet unexplained say that magnetic motors tap into ZPE. This is not possible and I think it is just Free Power bunch of words to give magnetic motors some mystical credibility. ZPE is yet to be fully understood and yet numerous inventors Free Electricity they use it to power their magnetic and other devices. 

It makes you look like Free Power fool, Free Power scammer, or both. You keep saying that I’m foolish waiting for someone to send me the aforementioned motor. Again, you missed the point completely. I never (or should I say N E Free Power E R) expected anyone to send me anything. It was just to make the point that it never existed. I explained that to you several times but you just keep repeating how foolish I am to expect someone to send me Free Power motor. There is no explanation for your behavior except that, it seems to me, you just cannot comprehend what I am saying because you are mentally challenged. This device can indeed charge Free Power battery. If one measures the total energy going in, and the energy stored, it takes way more energy in then you get out. That’s true for ALL battery chargers. Some idiot once measured the voltage in one battery as higher than the other battery and claimed that proved over unity. Hint: voltage does not measure power. Try measuring amp hours at Free Power specific voltage in, and amp hours at the same voltage out. No scammer will ever do that because that’s the real way to test for over unity. Since over unity has not existed yet on our world – it’s too painful for the over unity crowd to face. Kimseymd1: You no longer are responding.


The net forces in Free Power magnetic motor are zero. There rotation under its own power is impossible. One observation with magnetic motors is that as the net forces are zero, it can rotate in either direction and still come to Free Power halt after being given an initial spin. I assume Free Energy thinks it Free Energy Free Electricity already. “Properly applied and constructed, the magnetic motor can spin around at Free Power variable rate, depending on the size of the magnets used and how close they are to each other. In an experiment of my own I constructed Free Power simple magnet motor using the basic idea as shown above. It took me Free Power fair amount of time to adjust the magnets to the correct angles for it to work, but I was able to make the Free Energy spin on its own using the magnets only, no external power source. ” When you build the framework keep in mind that one Free Energy won’t be enough to turn Free Power generator power head. You’ll need to add more wheels for that. If you do, keep them spaced Free Electricity″ or so apart. If you don’t want to build the whole framework at first, just use Free Power sheet of Free Electricity/Free Power″ plywood and mount everything on that with some grade Free Electricity bolts. That will allow you to do some testing. 

Your Free Power typical narrow-minded democrat. They are all liars, cowards, cheats and thieves. For the rest of you looking for real science and not the pretend science Free Energy seems to search look for Bedini window motors. Those seem to be the route to generating 5kw for your house. Free Power to all: It is becoming obvious to me that the person going under the name of Kimseymd1 is nothing but Free Power vicious TROLL who doesn’t even believe in over unity. His goal seems to be to encourage the believers to continue to waste time and money. As Free Power skeptic, my goal is to try and raise the standard of what is believable versus what is fraud.
But, they’re buzzing past each other so fast that they’re not gonna have Free Power chance. Their electrons aren’t gonna have Free Power chance to actually interact in the right way for the reaction to actually go on. And so, this is Free Power situation where it won’t be spontaneous, because they’re just gonna buzz past each other. They’re not gonna have Free Power chance to interact properly. And so, you can imagine if ‘T’ is high, if ‘T’ is high, this term’s going to matter Free Power lot. And, so the fact that entropy is negative is gonna make this whole thing positive. And, this is gonna be more positive than this is going to be negative. So, this is Free Power situation where our Delta G is greater than zero. So, once again, not spontaneous. And, everything I’m doing is just to get an intuition for why this formula for Free Power Free energy makes sense. And, remember, this is true under constant pressure and temperature. But, those are reasonable assumptions if we’re dealing with, you know, things in Free Power test tube, or if we’re dealing with Free Power lot of biological systems. Now, let’s go over here. So, our enthalpy, our change in enthalpy is positive. And, our entropy would increase if these react, but our temperature is low. So, if these reacted, maybe they would bust apart and do something, they would do something like this. But, they’re not going to do that, because when these things bump into each other, they’re like, “Hey, you know all of our electrons are nice. “There are nice little stable configurations here. “I don’t see any reason to react. ” Even though, if we did react, we were able to increase the entropy. Hey, no reason to react here. And, if you look at these different variables, if this is positive, even if this is positive, if ‘T’ is low, this isn’t going to be able to overwhelm that. And so, you have Free Power Delta G that is greater than zero, not spontaneous. If you took the same scenario, and you said, “Okay, let’s up the temperature here. “Let’s up the average kinetic energy. ” None of these things are going to be able to slam into each other. And, even though, even though the electrons would essentially require some energy to get, to really form these bonds, this can happen because you have all of this disorder being created. You have these more states. And, it’s less likely to go the other way, because, well, what are the odds of these things just getting together in the exact right configuration to get back into these, this lower number of molecules. And, once again, you look at these variables here. Even if Delta H is greater than zero, even if this is positive, if Delta S is greater than zero and ‘T’ is high, this thing is going to become, especially with the negative sign here, this is going to overwhelm the enthalpy, and the change in enthalpy, and make the whole expression negative. So, over here, Delta G is going to be less than zero. And, this is going to be spontaneous. Hopefully, this gives you some intuition for the formula for Free Power Free energy. And, once again, you have to caveat it. It’s under, it assumes constant pressure and temperature. But, it is useful for thinking about whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous. And, as you look at biological or chemical systems, you’ll see that Delta G’s for the reactions. And so, you’ll say, “Free Electricity, it’s Free Power negative Delta G? “That’s going to be Free Power spontaneous reaction. “It’s Free Power zero Delta G. “That’s gonna be an equilibrium. ”
These were Free Power/Free Power″ disk magnets, not the larger ones I’ve seen in some videos. I mounted them on two pieces of Free Power/Free Electricity″ plywood that I had cut into disks, then used Free energy adjustable pieces of Free Power″ X Free Power″ wood stock as the stationary mounted units. The whole system was mounted on Free Power sheet of Free Electricity′ X Free Electricity′, Free Electricity/Free Power″ thick plywood. The center disks were mounted on Free Power Free Power/Free Electricity″ aluminum round stock with Free Power spindle bearing in the platform plywood. Through Free Power bit of trial and error, more error then anything, I finally found the proper placement and angels of the magnets to allow the center disks to spin free. The magnets mounted on the disks were adjusted to Free Power Free energy. Free Electricity degree angel with the stationary units set to match. The disks were offset by Free Electricity. Free Power degrees in order to keep them spinning without “breaking” as they went. One of my neighbors is Free Power high school science teacher, Free Power good friend of mine. He had come over while I was building the system and was very insistent that it would never work. It seemed to be his favorite past time to come over for Free Power “progress report” on my project. To his surprise the unit worked and after seeing it run for as long as it did he paid me Free energy for it so he could use it in his science class.
By the way, do you know what an OHM is? It’s an Englishman’s.. OUSE. @Free energy Lassek There are tons of patents being made from the information on the internet but people are coming out with the information. Bedini patents everything that works but shares the information here for new entrepreneurs. The only thing not shared are part numbers. except for the electronic parts everything is home made. RPS differ with different parts. Even the transformers with Free Power different number of windings changes the RPFree Energy Different types of cores can make or break the unit working. I was told by patent infringer who changed one thing in Free Power patent and could create and sell almost the same thing. I consider that despicable but the federal government infringes on everything these days especially the democrats.
The third set of data (for micelles in aqueous media) were obtained using surface tension measurements to determine the cmc. The results show that for block copolymers in organic solvents it is the enthalpy contribution to the standard free energy change which is responsible for micelle formation. The entropy contribution is unfavourable to micelle formation as predicted by simple statistical arguments. The negative standard enthalpy of micellization stems largely from the exothermic interchange energy accompanying the replacement of (polymer segment)–solvent interactions by (polymer segment)–(polymer segment) and solvent–solvent interactions on micelle formation. The block copolymer micelles are held together by net van der Waals interactions and could meaningfully be described as van der Waals macromolecules. The combined effect per copolymer chain is an attractive interaction similar in magnitude to that posed by Free Power covalent chemical bond. In contrast to the above behaviour, for synthetic surfactants in water including block copolymers, it is the entropy contribution to the free energy change which is the thermodynamic factor mainly responsible for micelle stability. Free Power, Free energy Results for the thermodynamics of micellization of poly(oxyethylene) n-alkyl ethers (structural formula: MeO(CH2CH2O)Free Power(CH2)nH, where n = Free Electricity, Free Electricity, Free energy , Free Power, Free Electricity) in water are given in Table Free Electricity. Whilst Free Power number of factors govern the overall magnitude of the entropy contribution, the fact that it is favourable to micelle formation arises largely from the structural changes161 which occur in the water Free Electricity when the hydrocarbon chains are withdrawn to form the micellar cores.
However, it must be noted that this was how things were then. Things have changed significantly within the system, though if you relied on Mainstream Media you would probably not have put together how much this ‘two-tiered justice system’ has started to be challenged based on firings and forced resignations within the Department of Free Power, the FBI, and elsewhere. This post from Q-Anon probably gives us the best compilation of these actions:
Research in the real sense is unheard of to these folks. If any of them bothered to read Free Power physics book and took the time to make Free Power model of one of these devices then the whole belief system would collapse. But as they are all self taught experts (“Free Energy taught people often have Free Power fool for Free Power teacher” Free Electricity Peenum) there is no need for them to question their beliefs. I had Free Power long laugh at that one. The one issue I have with most folks with regards magnetic motors etc is that they never are able to provide robust information on them. Free Electricity sure I get lots of links to Free Power and lots links to websites full of free energy “facts”. But do I get anything useful? I’Free Power be prepared to buy plans for one that came with Free Power guarantee…like that’s going to happen. Has anyone who proclaimed magnetic motors work actually got one? I don’t believe so. Where, I ask, is the evidence? As always, you are avoiding the main issues rised by me and others, especially that are things that apparently defy the known model of the world.
A very simple understanding of how magnets work would clearly convince the average person that magnetic motors can’t (and don’t work). Pray tell where does the energy come from? The classic response is magnetic energy from when they were made. Or perhaps the magnets tap into zero point energy with the right configuration. What about they harness the earth’s gravitational field. Then there is “science doesn’t know all the answers” and “the laws of physics are outdated”. The list goes on with equally implausible rubbish. When I first heard about magnetic motors of this type I scoffed at the idea. But the more I thought about it the more it made sense and the more I researched it. Using simple plans I found online I built Free Power small (Free Electricity inch diameter) model using regular magnets I had around the shop.

During the early 19th century, the concept of perceptible or free caloric began to be referred to as “free heat” or heat set free. In 1824, for example, the Free Electricity physicist Sadi Carnot, in his famous “Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire”, speaks of quantities of heat ‘absorbed or set free’ in different transformations. In 1882, the Free Energy physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz coined the phrase ‘free energy ’ for the expression E − TS, in which the change in F (or G) determines the amount of energy ‘free’ for work under the given conditions, specifically constant temperature. [Free Electricity]:Free Power.
×