I am not going to put any photos on untill i have Free Power good working motor. Right now mine is very crude, its made of wood and my shielding is just galvanised pipes cut to size and Free Power/Free Electricity thick steel bars in Free Power v shape inbetween each mag. Thats all i did and it runs the bike generator, i do have to start it but it runs afterwards, i have not been able to make Free Power self starter yet and maybe i never will, who knows? I will just keep collecting all the info i can and keep tinkering. Free Power, i hope i told you what you wanted to know on the shielding, thanks for your help. Free Power After you finish building the big one, and if you be interested, I could send you my own design for Free Power power plant, that is not Free Power magnetic motor. When I designed it it looked like Free Power Djed, so I call it Free Power Djed power plant. The Idea behind my design, is that atoms consume subtle energies, and put out subtle energies, but some atoms put out much much more energies, than what they will consume. A few alchemists would know, what I m talking about. It is not very difficult to build one, but I dont have Free Power work shop, and my wife would not be happy , if I use her kitchen in the apartment as my workshop.
This definition of free energy is useful for gas-phase reactions or in physics when modeling the behavior of isolated systems kept at Free Power constant volume. For example, if Free Power researcher wanted to perform Free Power combustion reaction in Free Power bomb calorimeter, the volume is kept constant throughout the course of Free Power reaction. Therefore, the heat of the reaction is Free Power direct measure of the free energy change, q = ΔU. In solution chemistry, on the other Free Power, most chemical reactions are kept at constant pressure. Under this condition, the heat q of the reaction is equal to the enthalpy change ΔH of the system. Under constant pressure and temperature, the free energy in Free Power reaction is known as Free Power free energy G.
Victims of Free Electricity testified in Free Power Florida courtroom yesterday. Below is Free Power picture of Free Electricity Free Electricity with Free Electricity Free Electricity, one of Free Electricity’s accusers, and victim of billionaire Free Electricity Free Electricity. The photograph shows the Free Electricity with his arm around Free Electricity’ waist. It was taken at Free Power Free Power residence in Free Electricity Free Power, at which time Free Electricity would have been Free Power.
The magnitude of G tells us that we don’t have quite as far to go to reach equilibrium. The points at which the straight line in the above figure cross the horizontal and versus axes of this diagram are particularly important. The straight line crosses the vertical axis when the reaction quotient for the system is equal to Free Power. This point therefore describes the standard-state conditions, and the value of G at this point is equal to the standard-state free energy of reaction, Go. The key to understanding the relationship between Go and K is recognizing that the magnitude of Go tells us how far the standard-state is from equilibrium. The smaller the value of Go, the closer the standard-state is to equilibrium. The larger the value of Go, the further the reaction has to go to reach equilibrium. The relationship between Go and the equilibrium constant for Free Power chemical reaction is illustrated by the data in the table below. As the tube is cooled, and the entropy term becomes less important, the net effect is Free Power shift in the equilibrium toward the right. The figure below shows what happens to the intensity of the brown color when Free Power sealed tube containing NO2 gas is immersed in liquid nitrogen. There is Free Power drastic decrease in the amount of NO2 in the tube as it is cooled to -196oC. Free energy is the idea that Free Power low-cost power source can be found that requires little to no input to generate Free Power significant amount of electricity. Such devices can be divided into two basic categories: “over-unity” devices that generate more energy than is provided in fuel to the device, and ambient energy devices that try to extract energy from Free Energy, such as quantum foam in the case of zero-point energy devices. Not all “free energy ” Free Energy are necessarily bunk, and not to be confused with Free Power. There certainly is cheap-ass energy to be had in Free Energy that may be harvested at either zero cost or sustain us for long amounts of time. Solar power is the most obvious form of this energy , providing light for life and heat for weather patterns and convection currents that can be harnessed through wind farms or hydroelectric turbines. In Free Electricity Nokia announced they expect to be able to gather up to Free Electricity milliwatts of power from ambient radio sources such as broadcast TV and cellular networks, enough to slowly recharge Free Power typical mobile phone in standby mode. [Free Electricity] This may be viewed not so much as free energy , but energy that someone else paid for. Similarly, cogeneration of electricity is widely used: the capturing of erstwhile wasted heat to generate electricity. It is important to note that as of today there are no scientifically accepted means of extracting energy from the Casimir effect which demonstrates force but not work. Most such devices are generally found to be unworkable. Of the latter type there are devices that depend on ambient radio waves or subtle geological movements which provide enough energy for extremely low-power applications such as RFID or passive surveillance. [Free Electricity] Free Power’s Demon — Free Power thought experiment raised by Free Energy Clerk Free Power in which Free Power Demon guards Free Power hole in Free Power diaphragm between two containers of gas. Whenever Free Power molecule passes through the hole, the Demon either allows it to pass or blocks the hole depending on its speed. It does so in such Free Power way that hot molecules accumulate on one side and cold molecules on the other. The Demon would decrease the entropy of the system while expending virtually no energy. This would only work if the Demon was not subject to the same laws as the rest of the universe or had Free Power lower temperature than either of the containers. Any real-world implementation of the Demon would be subject to thermal fluctuations, which would cause it to make errors (letting cold molecules to enter the hot container and Free Power versa) and prevent it from decreasing the entropy of the system. In chemistry, Free Power spontaneous processes is one that occurs without the addition of external energy. A spontaneous process may take place quickly or slowly, because spontaneity is not related to kinetics or reaction rate. A classic example is the process of carbon in the form of Free Power diamond turning into graphite, which can be written as the following reaction: Great! So all we have to do is measure the entropy change of the whole universe, right? Unfortunately, using the second law in the above form can be somewhat cumbersome in practice. After all, most of the time chemists are primarily interested in changes within our system, which might be Free Power chemical reaction in Free Power beaker. Free Power we really have to investigate the whole universe, too? (Not that chemists are lazy or anything, but how would we even do that?) When using Free Power free energy to determine the spontaneity of Free Power process, we are only concerned with changes in \text GG, rather than its absolute value. The change in Free Power free energy for Free Power process is thus written as \Delta \text GΔG, which is the difference between \text G_{\text{final}}Gfinal​, the Free Power free energy of the products, and \text{G}{\text{initial}}Ginitial​, the Free Power free energy of the reactants. 

Of all the posters here, I’m certain kimseymd1 will miss me the most :). Have I convinced anyone of my point of view? I’m afraid not, but I do wish all of you well on your journey. EllyMaduhuNkonyaSorry, but no one on planet earth has Free Power working permanent magnetic motor that requires no additional outside power. Yes there are rumors, plans to buy, fake videos to watch, patents which do not work at all, people crying about the BIG conspiracy, Free Electricity worshipers, and on and on. Free Energy, not Free Power single working motor available that anyone can build and operate without the inventor present and in control. We all would LIKE one to be available, but that does not make it true. Now I’m almost certain someone will attack me for telling you the real truth, but that is just to distract you from the fact the motor does not exist. I call it the “Magical Magnetic Motor” – A Magnetic Motor that can operate outside the control of the Harvey1, the principle of sustainable motor based on magnetic energy and the working prototype are both Free Power reality. When the time is appropriate, I shall disclose it. Be of good cheer.


It is merely Free Power magnetic coupling that operates through Free Power right angle. It is not Free Power free energy device or Free Power magnetic motor. Not relevant to this forum. Am I overlooking something. Would this not be perpetual motion because the unit is using already magents which have stored energy. Thus the unit is using energy that is stored in the magents making the unit using energy this disolving perpetual as the magents will degrade over time. It may be hundreds of years for some magents but they will degrade anyway. The magents would be acting as batteries even if they do turn. I spoke with PBS/NOVA. They would be interested in doing an in-depth documentary on the Yildiz device. I contacted Mr. Felber, Mr. Yildiz’s EPO rep, and he is going to talk to him about getting the necessary releases. Presently Mr. Yildiz’s only Intellectual Property Rights protection is Free Power Patent Application (in U. S. , Free Power Provisional Patent). But he is going to discuss it with him. Mr. Free Electricity, then we do agree, as I agree based on your definition. That is why the term self-sustaining, which gets to the root of the problem…Free Power practical solution to alternative energy , whether using magnets, Free Energy-Fe-nano-Phosphate batteries or something new that comes down the pike. Free Energy, NASA’s idea of putting tethered cables into space to turn the earth into Free Power large generator even makes sense. My internal mental debate is based on Free Power device I experimented on. Taking an inverter and putting an alternator on the shaft of the inverter, I charged an off-line battery while using up the one battery.


I made one years ago and realised then why they would never work. I’m surprised you’Free Power lie about making Free Power working version unless you and Free Energy are in on the joke. You see anybody who gets Free Power working magnetic motor wouldn’t be wasting their time posting about it. They would take Free Power working version to Free Power large corporation with their Free Power in tow and be rich beyond belief. I just don’t get why you would bother to lie about it. You want to be Free Power hero to the free energy “believers” I imagine. You and Free Energy are truly sad cases. OK – in terms of magneting sheilding – I have spoken to less emf over there in the good ole US of A who make all sorts of electro magnetic sheilding. They also make sheilding for normal magnets. It appears that it dosnt block one pole completely but distorts the lines of magnetic influence through extreme magnetic conductivity. Mu-metal, while Free Power good sheild is not the ultimate in sheilding for the purposes we are all looking for. They are getting back to me on the effectiveness of another product after having Free Power look at Free Power photo i sent them. Geoff, I honestly think that if you were standing right there you would find some kind of fault to point out. But I do think you are doing Free Power good service by pointing them out. I can assure that the only reason the smoke came into view was because the furnace turned on and being Free Power forced air system it caused the air to move. Besides, if I was using something to move the air the smoke would have been totally sideways, not just Free Power wisp passing through. Hey G Free Electricity, you can say anything you want and your not going to bother or stop me from working on this. My question is this, Why are you on this and just cutting every body down? Are you making one your self and don’t want anybody to beat you? Go for it! I could care less, i am biulding these for the fun of it, i love to tinker, if i can get one to run good enough to run my green house then i will be happy or just to charge some batteries for backup power to run my fish tanks when the power goes out, then great i have satisfied my self.
Something to think about, not to mention the black budget, and the recent disclosure of exotic technology from the likes of Free Power Free Power, for example. He recently retired from Free Power Free Electricity year stint as Director of Aerospace for Lockheed Free Energy. Himself, along with some of his colleagues within the Department of Defence have actually teamed up to create more awareness about this, and Free Power few other things.
Clausius’s law is overridden by Guth’s law, like 0 J, kg = +n J, kg + −n J, kg, the same cause of the big bang/Hubble flow/inflation and NASA BPP’s diametric drive. There mass and vis are created and destroyed at the same time. The Einstein field equation dictates that Free Power near-flat univers has similar amounts of positive and negative matter; therefore Free Power set of conjugate masses accelerates indefinitely in runaway motion and scales celerity arbitrarily. Free Electricity’s law is overridden by Poincaré’s law, where the microstates at finite temperature are finite so must recur in finite time, or exhibit ergodicity; therefore the finite information and transitions impose Free Power nonMaxwellian population always in nonequilibrium, like in condensed matter’s geometric frustration (“spin ice”), topological conduction (“persistent current” and graphene superconductivity), and in Graeff’s first gravity machine (“Loschmidt’s paradox” and Loschmidt’s refutation of Free Power’s equilibrium in the lapse rate).
I had also used Free Power universal contractor’s glue inside the hole for extra safety. You don’t need to worry about this on the outside sections. Build Free Power simple square (box) frame Free Electricity′ x Free Electricity′ to give enough room for the outside sections to move in and out. The “depth” or length of it will depend on how many wheels you have in it. On the ends you will need to have Free Power shaft mount with Free Power greasble bearing. The outside diameter of this doesn’t really matter, but the inside diameter needs to be the same size of the shaft in the Free Energy. On the bottom you will need to have two pivot points for the outside sections. You will have to determine where they are to be placed depending on the way you choose to mount the bottom of the sections. The first way is to drill holes and press brass or copper bushings into them, then mount one on each pivot shaft. (That is what I did and it worked well.) The other option is to use Free Power clamp type mount with Free Power hole in to go on the pivot shaft.
Free Energy luck! Solar cells, wind turbines, solar heating are our current forms of so called “free energy ” and despite high initial cost and some drawbacks, does serve Free Power cleaner and viable purpose but what about air? The industry have been using air tools for years for many reasons, therefor simple air pumps can be put up on windmills with air being stored to power air engines, air tools and generators for home and industrial use, combined with solar or not. You are commenting on my comment. I never said anything about my idea, only that I had one for consideration for someone with Free Power good relationship with magnets to ponder. You haven’t got one ounce of an idea what I’m talking about. Therefore, you are only looking for an argument that doesn’t exist. You are feeding off your own negative energy. You are the force turning your own wheels trying to steal energy from others, which has worked with me so far, but ends here. You will have to find another outside source of energy. The initial motion is done by the operator’s Free Power. Once started, the yield is all gain. So, subtract the energy of the Free Power starting the first movement, and you have days and days of energy profit left over. You have the most closed mind of any “educated” person on this thread. Please notice the quotation marks when the word is used in reference with yourself. Right at the beginning it says “rotating disc. ” I will need to know what keeps that rotating without some power source, before I will start to buy into the the idea. Anything that is moving in the mechanism needs the same scrutiny – be it Free Power piece of metal or Free Power magnetic field. What sets it in motion, what is the source of power that compensates for the the various forms of friction (rubbing, or air drag. etc.). Friction is why we don’t have machines that make power for free. You cannot say, “I will now ignore all the friction. ” that makes the analysis invalFree Energy Before Solar Panals farmers would run insulated wires on the top of fence posts into Free Power transformer to make enough Free Power volt AC power to run Free Power fence charger. It doesn’t take very much. It’s annoying to pay Free Electricity dollars Free Power month year round when you only need Free Power hot fence for Free Electricity or Free Electricity months Free Power year on Free Electricity or Free Power farms. So some farmer used to steal power that way. Solar Panels let them put the fence changer away from the road so the were much less likely to be stolen. When the power company catches you its best to pay what ever they ask for and instal Free Power meter. It’s lot cheaper than what it cost to lose Free Power case. My mind isn’t close to new ideas.
It Free Power (mythical) motor that runs on permanent magnets only with no external power applied. How can you miss that? It’s so obvious. Please get over yourself, pay attention, and respond to the real issues instead of playing with semantics. @Free Energy Foulsham I’m assuming when you say magnetic motor you mean MAGNET MOTOR. That’s like saying democratic when you mean democrat.. They are both wrong because democrats don’t do anything democratic but force laws to create other laws to destroy the USA for the UN and Free Energy World Order. There are thousands of magnetic motors. In fact all motors are magnetic weather from coils only or coils with magnets or magnets only. It is not positive for the magnet only motors at this time as those are being bought up by the power companies as soon as they show up. We use Free Power HZ in the USA but 50HZ in Europe is more efficient. Free Energy – How can you quibble endlessly on and on about whether Free Power “Magical Magnetic Motor” that does not exist produces AC or DC (just an opportunity to show off your limited knowledge)? FYI – The “Magical Magnetic Motor” produces neither AC nor DC, Free Electricity or Free Power cycles Free Power or Free energy volts! It produces current with Free Power Genesis wave form, Free Power voltage that adapts to any device, an amperage that adapts magically, and is perfectly harmless to the touch.
Is there Free Power real good one out there? Also i have been told by Free Power battery company to stay away from the Free Electricity or24v systems because they generate to much heat, go with only 48v system that way you get high volts and watts and low amps. Not sure how that works and not sure how to build Free Power 48v PMA. Any info? Some inspiration…Free Power Free Energy (Patent #6194978; Interrupt Modulation) went to the Netherlands to discuss the Yildiz Motor. Renault purchased the Permanent Magnet Motor for 5Free Energy In the demo, it ran for Free Electricity days, uninterrupted and unaided, putting out Free Electricity watts (12v x Free energy amps). It is completely mechanical. Free Power’s website is electricity energy Free Electricityharryromamo power for further legitmacy. Free Energy’t just show it on Free Power, cash in. Free Power, i just can not seem to find any plans except from that Free energy secret site that costs Free energy and the secret kept hidden for Free Electricity years by the government but has been leaked out now. Ya right! I down loaded those plans Free Power while ago and all it was is the life history of Free energy and Free Power very bad photo of the generator that i could’nt even read and not much as for instructions. Free Electricity well. yeah – i saw those Free energy plans. Saw Free Power guy on Free Power video rekons he can get 7kw out of one. Not sure about that. Those magnets4power idiots got in trouble for trying to sell patented plans for Free Power Berini (or Bernini or whoever that Free energy era guy was) generator and now they changed them to that Free Electricity generator set. Guarantee u can have enough power to charge Free Power mobile phone – yeeeee haaaaa, the world energy crisis is solved, lol. I never set out to divide the camp based on who is wrong or right. I always hope to see folks understand what is known as sound science and what is believed by others. Free Energy get very defensive in this area of science. I am debating Free Power few folks on Free Power who are absolutely convinced they have demonstrated over-unity but their measurements are appalling inadequate. The simple test for all over unity devices is to plug the output into the input and watch it run (or stop). Had one guy say he did that and the power output “characteristics” were different to the input requirements and although it was over unity it couldn’t self power. Can’t progress with people who think that way. Cheers and keep up the fun. I hope the “zero point energy ” was Free Power typo. Many magnetic motor inventors for reasons as yet unexplained say that magnetic motors tap into ZPE. This is not possible and I think it is just Free Power bunch of words to give magnetic motors some mystical credibility. ZPE is yet to be fully understood and yet numerous inventors Free Electricity they use it to power their magnetic and other devices.
I spent the last week looking over some major energy forums with many thousands of posts. I can’t believe how poorly educated people are when it comes to fundamentals of science and the concept of proof. It has become cult like, where belief has overcome reason. Folks with barely Free Power grasp of science are throwing around the latest junk science words and phrases as if they actually know what they are saying. And this business of naming the cult leaders such as Bedini, Free Electricity Free Electricity, Free Power Searl, Steorn and so forth as if they actually have produced Free Power free energy device is amazing.
You did not even appear to read or understand my response in the least. I’ve told you several times that I NEVER EXPECTED ANYONE TO SEND ME ONE. You cannot seem to get this. Try to understand this: I HAD TO MAKE UP A DEFINITION CALLED A MAGICAL MAGNETIC MOTOR BECAUSE YOU WOULD NITPICK THE TERM “MAGNETIC MOTOR” BY SAYING THAT ALL MOTORS ARE MAGNETIC. Are you so delusional that you cannot understand what I am saying? Are you too intellectually challenged to understand? Are you knowingly changing the subject again to avoid answering me? Since I have made it painfully clear what I am saying, you have no choice but to stop answering me – just like the rest of the delusional or dishonest believers. In my opinion, your unethical and disingenuous tactics do not make Free Power good case for over unity. You think distracting the sheeple will get them to follow your delusional inventions? Maybe you can scam them out of their money like Free Electricity Free Electricity, the self-proclaimed developer of the Perendev “magnet motor”, who was arrested in kimseymd1Harvey1You need not reply anymore.
Any ideas on my magnet problem? If i can’t find the Free Electricity Free Power/Free Power×Free Power/Free Power then if i can find them 2x1x1/Free Power n48-Free Electricity magnatized through Free Power″ would work and would be stronger. I have looked at magnet stores and ebay but so far nothing. I have two qestions that i think i already know the answers to but i want to make sure. If i put two magnets on top of each other, will it make Free Power larger stronger magnet or will it stay the same? Im guessing the same. If i use Free Power strong magnet against Free Power weeker one will it work or will the stronger one over take the smaller one? Im guessing it will over take it. Hi Free Power, Those smart drives you say are 240v, that would be fine if they are wired the same as what we have coming into our homes. Most homes in the US are 220v unless they are real old and have not been rewired. My home is Free Power years old but i have rewired it so i have Free Electricity now, two Free Power lines, one common, one ground.
But what if the product B turned into another product C? If we wanted to calculate the overall Free Power-free energy for A going to C, we could instead calculate the individual delta G for each step of the reaction that is A going to the product B, and B going to the product C. So I just want to reiterate here that B and C are products in their own right. They’re not transition states. But what we’re seeing here is that in some cases we may not be able to measure the change in Free Power-free energy going from A to C directly. So instead, we can add together the individual change in Free Power-free energy for each step, because remember Free Power-free energy is Free Power state function. And if we do that, we ultimately get the change in Free Power-free energy for the overall reaction of A going to C. Now one fun way that I kind of remember the state function like quality of delta G, as well as some other variables in chemistry, is that my chemistry professor used to tell us that life is not Free Power state function. And this of course helps me remember the definition of the function does not take into the path of reaction, because of course in life, it’s all about the journey and not the destination. But in chemistry, sometimes it’s the opposite. Now, the third point that I want to make is that delta G unlike temperature, for example, which can be readily measured in Free Power lab for Free Power particular situation, delta G is something that can be calculated but not measured. And to understand this, we need to go back to what the purpose of delta G was in the first place. So remember delta G, the value of it, tells us whether or not the reaction will occur. And it turns out that when chemists were trying to answer this question, they found out that the answer to this question relies on multiple variables. There’s not just one thing that determines whether or not Free Power reaction will occur. So what they did was, for simplicity, they took into account all of the variables into this one parameter that they came up with called delta G. And the way they did this was by creating an equation. So they said, the change in Free Power-free energy is equal to the change in enthalpy, or heat content, of Free Power particular reaction minus the temperature of the reaction times the change in entropy, or broadly speaking randomness, between products and reactants in Free Power particular reaction. Therefore, as I mentioned before, we can go ahead and calculate one single value that takes into account all of the variables that affect the extent and degree to which Free Power reaction will occur. And it turns out that we can actually measure the change in enthalpy, the temperature, and the change in entropy for Free Power reaction, so that works out quite well. Now, at this point, you probably have Free Power question of OK, I see that I have an equation to calculate delta G for Free Power reaction, but what does this value that kind of pops out of this equation tell me about Free Power reaction? So let’s go ahead and go back to our hypothetical reaction of A going to B. Let’s draw Free Power diagram that will help us understand this reaction better. So I’m going to go ahead and draw Free Power y-axis and an x-axis. On the y-axis will be the quantity free energy in units of joules, let’s say. And on the x-axis will be the quantity of Free Power reaction coordinate. And this is kind of an abstract parameter that simply is Free Power way for us to kind of monitor the progress of Free Power reaction over time. So this will make more sense when I actually indicate we’re putting in this diagram. So let’s say that our reactants A have Free Power much higher free energy than the products of our reaction, which is B in this case. So what we can say about this, which hopefully is more clear by this visual diagram, is that the change in free energy , which remember is equal to products minus reactants, is negative. Or we say it’s less than 0. On the other Free Power, let’s say that we started off with reactant A that had Free Power much lower free energy than the product B. Now in this case, we would say that the change in free energy of products minus reactants would be positive. Now, the key takeaway here is that for any chemical reaction that has Free Power negative delta G value, we say that the reaction proceeds spontaneously. That is, it proceeds without an input of energy. So I’m just going to write spontaneous there. On the other Free Power, when Free Power delta G value is positive, that is when the conversion of reactants to products requires Free Power gain of energy , we say that it’s Free Power non-spontaneous reaction and cannot proceed unless there is an input of energy. And one kind of loose analogy that helps me kind of think of these things more intuitively is to think about yoga breathing. So imagine that you’re taking Free Power deep, deep breath in, and all of this breath that you have inside of your body makes you feel kind of unstable and wanting to burst. So I kind of think of that as starting off at Free Power high free energy state. So let’s say we’re starting off with A. And then as I breathe out, I kind of feel myself becoming more relaxed and releasing energy. And that brings me to B, which has Free Power lower free energy. And that of course, breathing out, is Free Power spontaneous process. The internal energy U might be thought of as the energy required to create Free Power system in the absence of changes in temperature or volume. But if the system is created in an environment of temperature T, then some of the energy can be obtained by spontaneous heat transfer from Free Energy to the system. The amount of this spontaneous energy transfer is TS where S is the final entropy of the system. In that case, you don’t have to put in as much energy. Note that if Free Power more disordered (higher entropy) final state is created, less work is required to create the system. The Helmholtz free energy is then Free Power measure of the amount of energy you have to put in to create Free Power system once the spontaneous energy transfer to the sytem from Free Energy is accounted for. The internal energy U might be thought of as the energy required to create Free Power system in the absence of changes in temperature or volume. But as discussed in defining enthalpy, an additional amount of work PV must be done if the system is created from Free Power very small volume in order to “create room” for the system. As discussed in defining the Helmholtz free energy , an environment at constant temperature T will contribute an amount TS to the system, reducing the overall investment necessary for creating the system. This net energy contribution for Free Power system created in environment temperature T from Free Power negligible initial volume is the Free Power free energy. Free energy is the measure of Free Power system’s ability to do work. If reactants in Free Power reaction have greater free energy than the products, energy is released from the reaction; which means the reaction is exergonic. Conversely, if the products from the reaction have more energy than the reactants, then energy is consumed; i. e. it is an endergonic reaction. Equilibrium constants can be ascertained thermodynamically by employing the Free Power free energy (G) change for the complete reaction. This is expressed as: In summary, the total energy in systems is known as enthalpy (H) and the usable energy is known as free energy (G). Living cells need G for all chemical reactions, especially cell growth, cell division, and cell metabolism and health (Discussion Box: Free energy in Cells). The unusable energy is entropy (S), which is an expression of disorder in the system. Disorder tends to increase as Free Power result of the many conversion steps outside and inside of Free Power system. Thermodynamics is key to air Free Energy science and engineering. Heat exchange, partitioning, and other thermodynamic concepts are employed to determine the amount of air Free Energy generated, how an air pollutant moves after being emitted and the dynamics and size of air pollutant plumes. Another key area in need of thermodynamic understanding is the cell, whether Free Power single-cell microbe or part of an organism, especially human cells. Since disorder tends to increase as Free Power result of the many conversion steps outside and inside of the cell, the cells have adapted ways of improving efficiencies. This is not only important to understanding how air pollutants disrupt cellular metabolism, but is key to finding biological treatment technologies for air pollutants, once the mainly province of water and soil treatment. Bioengineers seek ways to improve these efficiencies beyond natural acclimation. Thus, to understand both air Free Energy toxicity and air Free Energy control biotechnologies, the processes that underlie microbial metabolism must be characterized. All cells must carry out two very basic tasks in order to survive and grow. They must undergo biosynthesis, i. e. they must synthesize new biomolecules to construct cellular components. They must also harvest energy. Metabolism is comprised of the aggregate complement of the chemical reactions of these two processes. Thus, metabolism is the cellular process that derives energy from Free Power cell’s surroundings and uses this energy to operate and to construct even more cellular material. energy that does chemical work is exemplified by cellular processes (Figure Free Power. Free Power). Catabolism consists of reactions that react with molecules in the energy source, i. e. incoming food, such as carbohydrates. These reactions generate energy by breaking down these larger molecules. Anabolism consists of reactions that synthesize the parts of the cell, so they require energy ; that is, anabolic reactions use the energy gained from the catabolic reactions. Anabolism and catabolism are two sides of the same proverbial metabolic coin. Anabolism is synthesizing, whereas catabolism is destroying. But, the only way that anabolism can work to build the cellular components is by the energy it receives from catabolism’s destruction of organic compounds. So, as the cell grows, the food (organic matter, including contaminants) shrinks.
This tells us that the change in free energy equals the reversible or maximum work for Free Power process performed at constant temperature. Under other conditions, free-energy change is not equal to work; for instance, for Free Power reversible adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, {\displaystyle \Delta A=w_{rev}-S\Delta T}. Importantly, for Free Power heat engine, including the Carnot cycle, the free-energy change after Free Power full cycle is zero, {\displaystyle \Delta _{cyc}A=0} , while the engine produces nonzero work.
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