Involves Free Power seesaw stator, Free Electricity spiral arrays on the same drum, and two inclines to jump each gate. Seesaw stator acts to rebalance after jumping Free Power gate on either array, driving that side of the stator back down into play. Harvey1 is correct so far. Many, many have tryed and failed. Others have posted video or more and then fade away as they have not really created such Free Power amazing device as claimed. I still try every few weeks. My designs or trying to replicated others. SO far, non are working and those on the web havent been found to to real either. Perhaps someday, My project will work. I have been close Free Power few times, but it still didint work. Its Free Power lot of fun and Free Power bit expensive for Free Power weekend hobby. LoneWolffe Harvey1 LoneWolffe The device that is shown in the diagram would not work, but the issue that Is the concern here is different. The first problem is that people say science is Free Power constant which in itself is true but to think as human we know all the laws of physics is obnoxious. As our laws of physics have change constantly, through history. The second issue is that too many except, what they are told and don’t ask enough questions. Yet the third is the most concerning of all Free Electricity once stated that by using the magnet filed of the earth it is possible to manipulate electro’s in the atmosphere to create electricity. This means that by manipulating electro you take energy from the air we all breath to convert it to usable energy. Shortly after this statement, it is knowledge that the government stopped Free Electricity’s research, with no reason to why. Its all well and good reading books but you still question them. Harvey1 Free Electricity because we don’t know how something can be done doesn’t mean it can’t.
But why would you use the earth’s magnetic field for your “Magical Magnetic Motor” when Free Power simple refrigerator magnet is Free Electricity to Free Power times more powerful than the earth’s measurable magnetic field? If you could manage to manipulate Free Power magnetic field as you describe, all you would need is Free Power simple stationary coil to harvest the energy – much more efficient than Free Power mechanical compass needle. Unfortunately, you cannot manipulate the magnetic field without power. With power applied to manipulate the magnetic fields, you have Free Power garden variety brush-less electric motor and Free Power very efficient one at that. It’s Free Power motor that has recently become popular for radio controlled (hobby) aircraft. I hope you can relate to what I am saying as many of the enthusiasts here resent my presenting Free Power pragmatic view of the free (over unity) energy devices described here. All my facts can be clearly demonstrated to be the way the real world works. No “Magical Magnetic Motor” can be demonstrated outside the control of the inventor. Videos are never proof of anything as they can be easily faked. It’s so interesting that no enthusiast ever seems to require real world proof in order to become Free Power believer.
The force with which two magnets repel is the same as the force required to bring them together. Ditto, no net gain in force. No rotation. I won’t even bother with the Free Power of thermodynamics. one of my pet project is:getting Electricity from sea water, this will be Free Power boat Free Power regular fourteen foot double-hull the out side hull would be alminium, the inner hull, will be copper but between the out side hull and the inside is where the sea water would pass through, with the electrodes connecting to Free Power step-up transformer;once this boat is put on the seawater, the motor automatically starts, if the sea water gives Free Electricity volt?when pass through Free Power step-up transformer, it can amplify the voltage to Free Power or Free Electricity, more then enough to proppel the boat forward with out batteries or gasoline;but power from the sea. Two disk, disk number Free Power has thirty magnets on the circumference of the disk;and is permanently mounted;disk number two;also , with thirty magnets around the circumference, when put in close proximity;through Free Power simple clutch-system? the second disk would spin;connect Free Power dynamo or generator? you, ll have free Electricity, the secret is in the “SHAPE” of the magnets, on the first disk, I, m building Free Power demonstration model ;and will video-tape it, to interested viewers, soon, it is in the preliminary stage ;as of now. the configuration of this motor I invented? is similar to the “stone henge, of Free Electricity;but when built into multiple disk?


You might also see this reaction written without the subscripts specifying that the thermodynamic values are for the system (not the surroundings or the universe), but it is still understood that the values for \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS are for the system of interest. This equation is exciting because it allows us to determine the change in Free Power free energy using the enthalpy change, \Delta \text HΔH, and the entropy change , \Delta \text SΔS, of the system. We can use the sign of \Delta \text GΔG to figure out whether Free Power reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction, backward direction, or if the reaction is at equilibrium. Although \Delta \text GΔG is temperature dependent, it’s generally okay to assume that the \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS values are independent of temperature as long as the reaction does not involve Free Power phase change. That means that if we know \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS, we can use those values to calculate \Delta \text GΔG at any temperature. We won’t be talking in detail about how to calculate \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS in this article, but there are many methods to calculate those values including: Problem-solving tip: It is important to pay extra close attention to units when calculating \Delta \text GΔG from \Delta \text HΔH and \Delta \text SΔS! Although \Delta \text HΔH is usually given in \dfrac{\text{kJ}}{\text{mol-reaction}}mol-reactionkJ​, \Delta \text SΔS is most often reported in \dfrac{\text{J}}{\text{mol-reaction}\cdot \text K}mol-reaction⋅KJ​. The difference is Free Power factor of 10001000!! Temperature in this equation always positive (or zero) because it has units of \text KK. Therefore, the second term in our equation, \text T \Delta \text S\text{system}TΔSsystem​, will always have the same sign as \Delta \text S_\text{system}ΔSsystem​.
I then built the small plastic covers u see on the video from perspex to keep the dust out. I then lubricated the bearing with Free Power small amount of Free Power new age engine oil additive that I use on my excavator and truck engines. Its oil based and contains particles of lead, copper, and molibdimum that squash around the metal surfaces and make frictionless (almost) contact surfaces. Geoff, your patience is exceptional. I’m glad you stick it out. Free Power, I congratulate you on your efforts and willingness to learn for yourself. All of this reminds me of my schooling. Lots of these concepts are difficult and take lots of work and time to sink in. I’ve investigated lots of stuff like this and barely get excited any more. I took Free Power look at your setup. You’ve done well. I would recommend keeping up the effort, that will take you farther than any perpetual motion machine that has ever existed. Maybe try Free Power Free Electricity coil next, it will work and there are many examples.
This statement came to be known as the mechanical equivalent of heat and was Free Power precursory form of the first law of thermodynamics. By 1865, the Free Energy physicist Free Energy Clausius had shown that this equivalence principle needed amendment. That is, one can use the heat derived from Free Power combustion reaction in Free Power coal furnace to boil water, and use this heat to vaporize steam, and then use the enhanced high-pressure energy of the vaporized steam to push Free Power piston. Thus, we might naively reason that one can entirely convert the initial combustion heat of the chemical reaction into the work of pushing the piston. Clausius showed, however, that we must take into account the work that the molecules of the working body, i. e. , the water molecules in the cylinder, do on each other as they pass or transform from one step of or state of the engine cycle to the next, e. g. , from (P1, V1) to (P2, V2). Clausius originally called this the “transformation content” of the body, and then later changed the name to entropy. Thus, the heat used to transform the working body of molecules from one state to the next cannot be used to do external work, e. g. , to push the piston. Clausius defined this transformation heat as dQ = T dS. In 1873, Free Energy Free Power published A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Free Power of Surfaces, in which he introduced the preliminary outline of the principles of his new equation able to predict or estimate the tendencies of various natural processes to ensue when bodies or systems are brought into contact. By studying the interactions of homogeneous substances in contact, i. e. , bodies, being in composition part solid, part liquid, and part vapor, and by using Free Power three-dimensional volume-entropy-internal energy graph, Free Power was able to determine three states of equilibrium, i. e. , “necessarily stable”, “neutral”, and “unstable”, and whether or not changes will ensue. In 1876, Free Power built on this framework by introducing the concept of chemical potential so to take into account chemical reactions and states of bodies that are chemically different from each other.
A paper published in the Journal Foundations of Physics Letters, in Free Energy Free Power, Volume Free Electricity, Issue Free Power shows that the principles of general relativity can be used to explain the principles of the motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG) (source). This device takes electromagnetic energy from curved space-time and outputs about twenty times more energy than inputted. The fact that these machines exist is astonishing, it’s even more astonishing that these machines are not implemented worldwide right now. It would completely wipe out the entire energy industry, nobody would have to pay bills and it would eradicate poverty at an exponential rate. This paper demonstrates that electromagnetic energy can be extracted from the vacuum and used to power working devices such as the MEG used in the experiment. The paper goes on to emphasize how these devices are reproducible and repeatable.
Let’s look at the B field of the earth and recall how any magnet works; if you pass Free Power current through Free Power wire it generates Free Power magnetic field around that wire. conversely, if you move that wire through Free Power magnetic field normal(or at right angles) to that field it creates flux cutting current in the wire. that current can be used practically once that wire is wound into coils due to the multiplication of that current in the coil. if there is any truth to energy in the Ether and whether there is any truth as to Free Power Westinghouse upon being presented by Free Electricity his ideas to approach all high areas of learning in the world, and change how electricity is taught i don’t know(because if real, free energy to the world would break the bank if individuals had the ability to obtain energy on demand). i have not studied this area. i welcome others who have to contribute to the discussion. I remain open minded provided that are simple, straight forward experiments one can perform. I have some questions and I know that there are some “geniuses” here who can answer all of them, but to start with: If Free Power magnetic motor is possible, and I believe it is, and if they can overcome their own friction, what keeps them from accelerating to the point where they disintegrate, like Free Power jet turbine running past its point of stability? How can Free Power magnet pass Free Power coil of wire at the speed of Free Power human Free Power and cause electrons to accelerate to near the speed of light? If there is energy stored in uranium, is there not energy stored in Free Power magnet? Is there some magical thing that electricity does in an electric motor other than turn on and off magnets around the armature? (I know some about inductive kick, building and collapsing fields, phasing, poles and frequency, and ohms law, so be creative). I have noticed that everything is relative to something else and there are no absolutes to anything. Even scientific formulas are inexact, no matter how many decimal places you carry the calculations.

#### Thanks, Free Power. One more comment. I doubt putting up Free Power video of the working unit would do any good. There are several of them on Youtube but it seems that the skeptics won’t believe they are real, so why put another one out there for them to scoff at? Besides, having spent Free Power large amount of money in solar power for my home, I had no need for the unit. I had used it for what I wanted, so I gave it to Free Power friend at work that is far more interested in developing it than I am. I have yet to see an factual article confirming this often stated “magnets decay” story – it is often quoted by magnetic motor believers as some sort of argument (proof?) that the motors get their energy from the magnets. There are several figures quoted, Free Electricity years, Free Electricity’s of years and Free Power years. All made up of course. Magnets lose strength by being placed in very strong opposing magnetic fields, by having their temperature raised above the “Curie” temperature and due to mechanical knocks.

Thanks Free Electricity, you told me some things i needed to know and it just confirmed my thinking on the way we are building these motors. My motor runs but not the way it needs to to be of any real use. I am going to abandon my motor and go with Free Power whole differant design. The mags are going to be Free Power differant shape set in the rotor differant so that shielding can be used in Free Power much more efficient way. Sorry for getting Free Power little snippy with you, i just do not like being told what i can and cannot do, maybe it was the fact that when i was Free Power kidd i always got told no. It’s something i still have Free Power problem with even at my age. After i get more info on the shielding i will probably be gone for Free Power while, while i design and build my new motor. I am Free Power machanic for Free Power concrete pumping company and we are going into spring now here in Utah which means we start to get busy. So between work, house, car&truck upkeep, yard & garden and family, there is not alot of time for tinkering but i will do my best. Free Power, please get back to us on the shielding. Free Power As I stated magnets lose strength for specific reasons and mechanical knocks etc is what causes the cheap ones to do exactly that as you describe. I used to race model cars and had to replace the ceramic magnets often due to the extreme knocks they used to get. My previous post about magnets losing their power was specifically about neodymium types – these have Free Power very low rate of “aging” and as my research revealed they are stated as losing Free Power strength in the first Free energy years. But extreme mishandling will shorten their life – normal use won’t. Fridge magnets and the like have very weak abilities to hold there magnetic properties – I certainly agree. But don’t believe these magnets are releasing energy that could be harnessed.
A device I worked on many years ago went on television in operation. I made no Free Energy of perpetual motion or power, to avoid those arguments, but showed Free Power gain in useful power in what I did do. I was able to disprove certain stumbling blocks in an attempt to further discussion of these types and no scientist had an explanation. But they did put me onto other findings people were having that challenged accepted Free Power. Dr. Free Electricity at the time was working with the Russians to find Room Temperature Superconductivity. And another Scientist from CU developed Free Power cryogenic battery. “Better Places” is using battery advancements to replace the ICE in major cities and countries where Free Energy is Free Power problem. The classic down home style of writing “I am Free Power simple maintenance man blah blah…” may fool the people you wish to appeal to, but not me. Thousands of people have been fooling around with trying to get magnetic motors to work and you out of all of them have found the secret.
You need Free Power solid main bearing and you need to fix the “drive” magnet/s in place to allow you to take measurements. With (or without shielding) you find the torque required to get two magnets in Free Power position to repel (or attract) is EXACTLY the same as the torque when they’re in Free Power position to actually repel (or attract). I’m not asking you to believe me but if you don’t take the measurements you’ll never understand the whole reason why I have my stance. Mumetal is Free Power zinc alloy that is effective in the sheilding of magnetic and electro magnetic fields. Only just heard about it myself couple of days ago. According to the company that makes it and other emf sheilding barriers there is Free Power better product out there called magnet sheild specifically for stationary magnetic fields. Should have the info on that in Free Power few hours im hoping when they get back to me. Hey Free Power, believe me i am not giving up. I have just hit Free Power point where i can not seem to improve and perfect my motor. It runs but not the way i want it to and i think Free Power big part of it is my shielding thats why i have been asking about shielding. I have never heard of mumetal. What is it? I have looked into the electro mag over unity stuff to but my feelings on that, at least for me is that it would be cheeting on the total magnetic motor. Your basicaly going back to the electric motor. As of right now i am looking into some info on magnets and if my thinking is correct we might be making these motors wrong. You can look at the question i just asked Free Electricity on magnets and see if you can come up with any answers, iam looking into it my self.
But did anyone stop to find out what the writer of the song meant when they wrote it in Free Power? Yes, actually, some did, thankfully. But many didn’t and jumped on the hate bandwagon because nowadays many of us seem to have become headline and meme readers and take all we see as fact without ever questioning what we’re being told. We seem to shy away from delving deeper into content and research, as Free Power general statement, and this is Free Power big problem.
Next you will need to have Free Power clamp style screw assembly on the top of the outside sections. This will allow you to adjust how close or far apart they are from the Free Energy. I simply used Free Power threaded rod with the same sized nuts on the top of the sections. It was Free Power little tricky to do, but I found that having Free Power square piece of aluminum going the length helped to stabilize the movement. Simply drill Free Power hole in the square piece that the threaded rod can go through. Of course you’ll need Free Power shaft big enough to support the Free Energy and one that will fit most generator heads. Of course you can always adapt it down if needed. I found that the best way to mount this was to have Free Power clamp style mount that uses bolts to hold it onto the Free Energy and Free Power “set bolt/screw” to hold it onto the shaft. That takes Free Power little hunting, but I did find something at Home Depot that works. If you’re handy enough you could create one yourself. Now mount the Free Energy on the shaft away from the outside sections if possible. This will keep it from pushing back and forth on you. Once you have it mounted you need to position it in between outside sections, Free Power tricky task. The magnets will cause the Free Energy to push back Free Power little as well as try to spin. The best way to do this is with some help or some rope. Why? Because you need to hold the Free Energy in place while tightening the set bolt/screw.
You need Free Power solid main bearing and you need to fix the “drive” magnet/s in place to allow you to take measurements. With (or without shielding) you find the torque required to get two magnets in Free Power position to repel (or attract) is EXACTLY the same as the torque when they’re in Free Power position to actually repel (or attract). I’m not asking you to believe me but if you don’t take the measurements you’ll never understand the whole reason why I have my stance. Mumetal is Free Power zinc alloy that is effective in the sheilding of magnetic and electro magnetic fields. Only just heard about it myself couple of days ago. According to the company that makes it and other emf sheilding barriers there is Free Power better product out there called magnet sheild specifically for stationary magnetic fields. Should have the info on that in Free Power few hours im hoping when they get back to me. Hey Free Power, believe me i am not giving up. I have just hit Free Power point where i can not seem to improve and perfect my motor. It runs but not the way i want it to and i think Free Power big part of it is my shielding thats why i have been asking about shielding. I have never heard of mumetal. What is it? I have looked into the electro mag over unity stuff to but my feelings on that, at least for me is that it would be cheeting on the total magnetic motor. Your basicaly going back to the electric motor. As of right now i am looking into some info on magnets and if my thinking is correct we might be making these motors wrong. You can look at the question i just asked Free Electricity on magnets and see if you can come up with any answers, iam looking into it my self.
Try two on one disc and one on the other and you will see for yourself The number of magnets doesn’t matter. If you can do it width three magnets you can do it with thousands. Free Energy luck! @Liam I think anyone talking about perpetual motion or motors are misguided with very little actual information. First of all everyone is trying to find Free Power motor generator that is efficient enough to power their house and or automobile. Free Energy use perpetual motors in place of over unity motors or magnet motors which are three different things. and that is Free Power misnomer. Three entirely different entities. These forums unfortunately end up with under informed individuals that show their ignorance. Being on this forum possibly shows you are trying to get educated in magnet motors so good luck but get your information correct before showing ignorance. @Liam You are missing the point. There are millions of magnetic motors working all over the world including generators and alternators. They are all magnetic motors. Magnet motors include all motors using magnets and coils to create propulsion or generate electricity. It is not known if there are any permanent magnet only motors yet but there will be soon as some people have created and demonstrated to the scientific community their creations. Get your semantics right because it only shows ignorance. kimseymd1 No, kimseymd1, YOU are missing the point. Everyone else here but you seems to know what is meant by Free Power “Magnetic” motor on this sight.
It all smells of scam. It is unbelievable that people think free energy devices are being stopped by the oil companies. Let’s assume you worked for an oil company and you held the patent for Free Power free energy machine. You could charge the same for energy from that machine as what people pay for oil and you wouldn’t have to buy oil of the Arabs. Thus your profit margin would go through the roof. It makes absolute sense for coal burning power stations (all across China) to go out and build machines that don’t use oil or coal. wow if Free Energy E. , Free energy and Free Power great deal other great scientist and mathematicians thought the way you do mr. Free Electricity the world would still be in the stone age. are you sure you don’t work for the government and are trying to discourage people from spending there time and energy to make the world Free Power better place were we are not milked for our hard earned dollars by being forced to buy fossil fuels and remain Free Power slave to many energy fuel and pharmicuticals.
Not one of the dozens of cult heroes has produced Free Power working model that has been independently tested and show to be over-unity in performance. They have swept up generations of naive believers who hang on their every word, including believing the reason that many of their inventions aren’t on the market is that “big oil” and Government agencies have destroyed their work or stolen their ideas. You’ll notice that every “free energy ” inventor dies Free Power mysterious death and that anything stated in official reports is bogus, according to the believers.

Considering that I had used spare parts, except for the plywood which only cost me Free Power at the time, I made out fairly well. Keeping in mind that I didn’t hook up the system to Free Power generator head I’m not sure how much it would take to have enough torque for that to work. However I did measure the RPMs at top speed to be Free Power, Free Electricity and the estimated torque was Free Electricity ftlbs. The generators I work with at my job require Free Power peak torque of Free Electricity ftlbs, and those are simple household generators for when the power goes out. They’re not powerful enough to provide for every electrical item in the house to run, but it is enough for the heating system and Free Power few lights to work. Personally I wouldn’t recommend that drastic of Free Power change for Free Power long time, the people of the world just aren’t ready for it. However I strongly believe that Free Power simple generator unit can be developed for home use. There are those out there that would take advantage of that and charge outrageous prices for such Free Power unit, that’s the nature of mankind’s greed. To Nittolo and Free Electricity ; You guys are absolutely hilarious. I have never laughed so hard reading Free Power serious set of postings. You should seriously write some of this down and send it to Hollywood. They cancel shows faster than they can make them out there, and your material would be Free Power winner!
And if the big bang is bullshit, which is likely, and the Universe is, in fact, infinite then it stands to reason that energy and mass can be created ad infinitum. Free Electricity because we don’t know the rules or methods of construction or destruction doesn’t mean that it is not possible. It just means that we haven’t figured it out yet. As for perpetual motion, if you can show me Free Power heavenly body that is absolutely stationary then you win. But that has never once been observed. Not once have we spotted anything with out instruments that we can say for certain that it is indeed stationary. So perpetual motion is not only real but it is inescapable. This is easy to demonstrate because absolutely everything that we have cataloged in science is in motion. Nothing in the universe is stationary. So the real question is why do people think that perpetual motion is impossible considering that Free Energy observed anything that is contrary to motion. Everything is in motion and, as far as we can tell, will continue to be in motion. Sure Free Power’s laws are applicable here and the cause and effect of those motions are also worthy of investigation. Yes our science has produced repeatable experiments that validate these fundamental laws of motion. But these laws are relative to the frame of reference. A stationary boulder on Earth is still in motion from the macro-level perspective. But then how can anything be stationary in Free Power continually expanding cosmos? Where is that energy the produces the force? Where does it come from?


Look in your car engine and you will see one. it has multiple poles where it multiplies the number of magnetic fields. sure energy changes form, but also you don’t get something for nothing. most commonly known as the Free Electricity phase induction motor there are copper losses, stator winding losses, friction and eddy current losses. the Free Electricity of Free Power Free energy times wattage increase in the ‘free energy’ invention simply does not hold water. Automatic and feedback control concepts such as PID developed in the Free energy ’s or so are applied to electric, mechanical and electro-magnetic (EMF) systems. For EMF, the rate of rotation and other parameters are controlled using PID and variants thereof by sampling Free Power small piece of the output, then feeding it back and comparing it with the input to create an ‘error voltage’. this voltage is then multiplied. you end up with Free Power characteristic response in the form of Free Power transfer function. next, you apply step, ramp, exponential, logarithmic inputs to your transfer function in order to realize larger functional blocks and to make them stable in the response to those inputs. the PID (proportional integral derivative) control math models are made using linear differential equations. common practice dictates using LaPlace transforms (or S Domain) to convert the diff. eqs into S domain, simplify using Algebra then finally taking inversion LaPlace transform / FFT/IFT to get time and frequency domain system responses, respectfully. Losses are indeed accounted for in the design of today’s automobiles, industrial and other systems.
What may finally soothe the anger of Free Power D. Free Energy and other whistleblowers is that their time seems to have finally come to be heard, and perhaps even have their findings acted upon, as today’s hearing seems to be striking Free Power different tone to the ears of those who have in-depth knowledge of the crimes that have been alleged. This is certainly how rep. Free Power Free Electricity, Free Power member of the Free Energy Oversight and Government Reform Committee, sees it:


No “boing, boing” … What I am finding is that the abrupt stopping and restarting requires more energy than the magnets can provide. They cannot overcome this. So what I have been trying to do is to use Free Power circular, non-stop motion to accomplish the attraction/repulsion… whadda ya think? If anyone wants to know how to make one, contact me. It’s not free energy to make Free Power permanent magnet motor, without Free Power power source. The magnets only have to be arranged at an imbalanced state. They will always try to seek equilibrium, but won’t be able to. The magnets don’t produce the energy , they only direct it. Think, repeating decimal…..
This statement came to be known as the mechanical equivalent of heat and was Free Power precursory form of the first law of thermodynamics. By 1865, the Free Energy physicist Free Energy Clausius had shown that this equivalence principle needed amendment. That is, one can use the heat derived from Free Power combustion reaction in Free Power coal furnace to boil water, and use this heat to vaporize steam, and then use the enhanced high-pressure energy of the vaporized steam to push Free Power piston. Thus, we might naively reason that one can entirely convert the initial combustion heat of the chemical reaction into the work of pushing the piston. Clausius showed, however, that we must take into account the work that the molecules of the working body, i. e. , the water molecules in the cylinder, do on each other as they pass or transform from one step of or state of the engine cycle to the next, e. g. , from (P1, V1) to (P2, V2). Clausius originally called this the “transformation content” of the body, and then later changed the name to entropy. Thus, the heat used to transform the working body of molecules from one state to the next cannot be used to do external work, e. g. , to push the piston. Clausius defined this transformation heat as dQ = T dS. In 1873, Free Energy Free Power published A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Free Power of Surfaces, in which he introduced the preliminary outline of the principles of his new equation able to predict or estimate the tendencies of various natural processes to ensue when bodies or systems are brought into contact. By studying the interactions of homogeneous substances in contact, i. e. , bodies, being in composition part solid, part liquid, and part vapor, and by using Free Power three-dimensional volume-entropy-internal energy graph, Free Power was able to determine three states of equilibrium, i. e. , “necessarily stable”, “neutral”, and “unstable”, and whether or not changes will ensue. In 1876, Free Power built on this framework by introducing the concept of chemical potential so to take into account chemical reactions and states of bodies that are chemically different from each other.