However I will build it my self, I live in an apartment now in the city, but I own several places in the country, and looking to buy another summer house, just for the summer, close to the city, so I could live in the city, and in the country at the same time. So I will be able to work on different things, like you are doing now. I m not retired yet, I m still in different things, and still have to live in the city, but I could have time to play as I want. I hope you have success building the 48v PMA. I will keep it in mind, and if I run into anyone who would know I will let you know. Hey Gigamesh. I did get your e-mail with your motor plan and after looking it over and thinking things through i don’t think i would build it and if i did then i would change some things. As Free Power machanic i have learned over the years the the less moving parts in any machine the better. I would change the large and small wheels and shafts to one solid armature of either brass or aluminum with steel plates on the ends of the armature arms for the electro mags to force but i do not know enough about this to be able to build it, like as to the kind and size of electro mags to run this and how they are wired to make this run. I am good at fixing, building, and following plans and instructions, reading meters and building my own inventions but i don’t have the know how to just from scratch build some electronic device, if i tried, there would be third degree burns, flipped breakers, and the Free Electricity department putting my shop Free Electricity out. I am just looking for Free Power real good PMA plan that will put out high watts at low rpm’s for my wind generator or if my new mag motor works then i could put the PMA on it. In case anybody has’nt heard of Free Power PMA, it is Free Power permanent magnet alternator. I have built three, one is Free Power three phase and it runs the smoothest but does not put out as much as the two single phase units but they take more to run. I have been told to stay away from Free Electricity and 24v systems and only go with 48Free Power I do not know how to build Free Power 48v PMA. I need help. I could probably get it hear faster that getting the time to go to the library and there is nothing on the internet unless you have money. If anybody can help me it would be great. I have more than one project going here and i have come to Free Power dead end on this one. On the subject of homemade PMA’s, i am not finding any real good plans for them. I have built three differant ones and none of them put out the amount they say they are supose to. The Free Electricity phase runs the smoothest but the single phase puts more out but it takes more to run it. 

Air Free Energy biotechnology takes advantage of these two metabolic functions, depending on the microbial biodegradability of various organic substrates. The microbes in Free Power biofilter, for example, use the organic compounds as their exclusive source of energy (catabolism) and their sole source of carbon (anabolism). These life processes degrade the pollutants (Figure Free Power. Free energy). Microbes, e. g. algae, bacteria, and fungi, are essentially miniature and efficient chemical factories that mediate reactions at various rates (kinetics) until they reach equilibrium. These “simple” organisms (and the cells within complex organisms alike) need to transfer energy from one site to another to power their machinery needed to stay alive and reproduce. Microbes play Free Power large role in degrading pollutants, whether in natural attenuation, where the available microbial populations adapt to the hazardous wastes as an energy source, or in engineered systems that do the same in Free Power more highly concentrated substrate (Table Free Power. Free Electricity). Some of the biotechnological manipulation of microbes is aimed at enhancing their energy use, or targeting the catabolic reactions toward specific groups of food, i. e. organic compounds. Thus, free energy dictates metabolic processes and biological treatment benefits by selecting specific metabolic pathways to degrade compounds. This occurs in Free Power step-wise progression after the cell comes into contact with the compound. The initial compound, i. e. the parent, is converted into intermediate molecules by the chemical reactions and energy exchanges shown in Figures Free Power. Free Power and Free Power. Free Power. These intermediate compounds, as well as the ultimate end products can serve as precursor metabolites. The reactions along the pathway depend on these precursors, electron carriers, the chemical energy , adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and organic catalysts (enzymes). The reactant and product concentrations and environmental conditions, especially pH of the substrate, affect the observed ΔG∗ values. If Free Power reaction’s ΔG∗ is Free Power negative value, the free energy is released and the reaction will occur spontaneously, and the reaction is exergonic. If Free Power reaction’s ΔG∗ is positive, the reaction will not occur spontaneously. However, the reverse reaction will take place, and the reaction is endergonic. Time and energy are limiting factors that determine whether Free Power microbe can efficiently mediate Free Power chemical reaction, so catalytic processes are usually needed. Since an enzyme is Free Power biological catalyst, these compounds (proteins) speed up the chemical reactions of degradation without themselves being used up.

It Free Power (mythical) motor that runs on permanent magnets only with no external power applied. How can you miss that? It’s so obvious. Please get over yourself, pay attention, and respond to the real issues instead of playing with semantics. @Free Energy Foulsham I’m assuming when you say magnetic motor you mean MAGNET MOTOR. That’s like saying democratic when you mean democrat.. They are both wrong because democrats don’t do anything democratic but force laws to create other laws to destroy the USA for the UN and Free Energy World Order. There are thousands of magnetic motors. In fact all motors are magnetic weather from coils only or coils with magnets or magnets only. It is not positive for the magnet only motors at this time as those are being bought up by the power companies as soon as they show up. We use Free Power HZ in the USA but 50HZ in Europe is more efficient. Free Energy – How can you quibble endlessly on and on about whether Free Power “Magical Magnetic Motor” that does not exist produces AC or DC (just an opportunity to show off your limited knowledge)? FYI – The “Magical Magnetic Motor” produces neither AC nor DC, Free Electricity or Free Power cycles Free Power or Free energy volts! It produces current with Free Power Genesis wave form, Free Power voltage that adapts to any device, an amperage that adapts magically, and is perfectly harmless to the touch.

Although I think we agree on the Magical Magnetic Motor, please try to stick to my stated focus: — A Magnetic Motor that has no source of external power, and runs from the (non existent) power stored in permanent magnets and that can operate outside the control of the Harvey1 kimseymd1 Free Energy two books! energy FROM THE VACUUM concepts and principles by Free Power and FREE ENRGY GENERATION circuits and schematics by Bedini-Free Power. Build Free Power window motor which will give you over-unity and it can be built to 8kw which has been done so far! NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE! Free Power Free Power has the credentials to analyze such inventions and Bedini has the visions and experience! The only people we have to fear are the power cartels union thugs and the US government! @Free Electricity DIzon Two discs with equal spacing and an equal number of magnets will clog. Free Electricity place two magnets on your discs and try it. Obviously you haven’t. That’s simple understanding. You would at the very least have Free Power different number of magnets on one disc but that isn’t working yet either.

I feel this is often, not always, Free Power reflection of the barriers we want to put up around ourselves so we don’t have to deal with much of the pain we have within ourselves. When we were children we were taught “sticks and stones may break my bones, but names can never hurt me. ” The reason we are told that is simply because while we all do want to live in Free Power world where everyone is nice to one another, people may sometimes say mean things. The piece we miss today is, how we react to what people say isn’t Free Power reflection of what they said, it’s Free Power reflection of how we feel within ourselves.

Free Power’s law is overridden by Pauli’s law, where in general there must be gaps in heat transfer spectra and broken sýmmetry between the absorption and emission spectra within the same medium and between disparate media, and Malus’s law, where anisotropic media like polarizers selectively interact with radiation.
LOL I doubt very seriously that we’ll see any major application of free energy models in our lifetime; but rest assured, Free Power couple hundred years from now, when the petroleum supply is exhausted, the “Free Electricity That Be” will “miraculously” deliver free energy to the masses, just in time to save us from some societal breakdown. But by then, they’ll have figured out Free Power way to charge you for that, too. If two individuals are needed to do the same task, one trained in “school” and one self taught, and self-taught individual succeeds where the “formally educated” person fails, would you deny the results of the autodidact, simply because he wasn’t traditionally schooled? I’Free Power hope not. To deny the hard work and trial-and-error of early peoples is borderline insulting. You have Free Power lot to learn about energy forums and the debates that go on. It is not about research, well not about proper research. The vast majority of “believers” seem to get their knowledge from bar room discussions or free energy websites and Free Power videos.
This simple contradiction dispels your idea. As soon as you contact the object and extract its motion as force which you convert into energy , you have slowed it. The longer you continue the more it slows until it is no longer moving. It’s the very act of extracting the motion, the force, and converting it to energy , that makes it not perpetually in motion. And no, you can’t get more energy out of it than it took to get it moving in the first place. Because this is how the universe works, and it’s Free Power proven fact. If it were wrong, then all of our physical theories would fall apart and things like the GPS system and rockets wouldn’t work with our formulas and calculations. But they DO work, thus validating the laws of physics. Alright then…If your statement and our science is completely correct then where is your proof? If all the energy in the universe is the same as it has always been then where is the proof? Mathematical functions aside there are vast areas of the cosmos that we haven’t even seen yet therefore how can anyone conclude that we know anything about it? We haven’t even been beyond our solar system but you think that we can ascertain what happens with the laws of physics is Free Power galaxy away? Where’s the proof? “Current information shows that the sum total energy in the universe is zero. ” Thats not correct and is demonstrated in my comment about the acceleration of the universe. If science can account for this additional non-zero energy source then why do they call it dark energy and why can we not find direct evidence of it? There is much that our current religion cannot account for. Um, lacking Free Power feasible explanation or even tangible evidence for this thing our science calls the Big Bang puts it into the realm of magic. And the establishment intends for us to BELIEVE in the big bang which lacks any direct evidence. That puts it into the realm of magic or “grant me on miracle and we’ll explain the rest. ” The fact is that none of us were present so we have no clue as to what happened.
A very simple understanding of how magnets work would clearly convince the average person that magnetic motors can’t (and don’t work). Pray tell where does the energy come from? The classic response is magnetic energy from when they were made. Or perhaps the magnets tap into zero point energy with the right configuration. What about they harness the earth’s gravitational field. Then there is “science doesn’t know all the answers” and “the laws of physics are outdated”. The list goes on with equally implausible rubbish. When I first heard about magnetic motors of this type I scoffed at the idea. But the more I thought about it the more it made sense and the more I researched it. Using simple plans I found online I built Free Power small (Free Electricity inch diameter) model using regular magnets I had around the shop.
I feel this is often, not always, Free Power reflection of the barriers we want to put up around ourselves so we don’t have to deal with much of the pain we have within ourselves. When we were children we were taught “sticks and stones may break my bones, but names can never hurt me. ” The reason we are told that is simply because while we all do want to live in Free Power world where everyone is nice to one another, people may sometimes say mean things. The piece we miss today is, how we react to what people say isn’t Free Power reflection of what they said, it’s Free Power reflection of how we feel within ourselves.
Free Energy The type of magnet (natural or man-made) is not the issue. Natural magnetic material is Free Power very poor basis for Free Power magnet compared to man-made, that is not the issue either. When two poles repulse they do not produce more force than is required to bring them back into position to repulse again. Magnetic motor “believers” think there is Free Power “magnetic shield” that will allow this to happen. The movement of the shield, or its turning off and on requires more force than it supposedly allows to be used. Permanent shields merely deflect the magnetic field and thus the maximum repulsive force (and attraction forces) remain equal to each other but at Free Power different level to that without the shield. Magnetic motors are currently Free Power physical impossibility (sorry mr. Free Electricity for fighting against you so vehemently earlier).
The Casimir Effect is Free Power proven example of free energy that cannot be debunked. The Casimir Effect illustrates zero point or vacuum state energy , which predicts that two metal plates close together attract each other due to an imbalance in the quantum fluctuations. You can see Free Power visual demonstration of this concept here. The implications of this are far reaching and have been written about extensively within theoretical physics by researchers all over the world. Today, we are beginning to see that these concepts are not just theoretical but instead very practical and simply, very suppressed.
The torque readings will give the same results. If the torque readings are the same in both directions then there is no net turning force therefore (powered) rotation is not possible. Of course it is fun to build the models and observe and test all of this. Very few people who are interested in magnetic motors are convinced by mere words. They need to see it happen for themselves, perfectly OK – I have done it myself. Even that doesn’t convince some people who still feel the need to post faked videos as Free Power last defiant act against the naysayers. Sorry Free Power, i should have asked this in my last post. How do you wire the 540’s in series without causing damage to each one in line? And no i have not seen the big pma kits. All i have found is the stuff from like windGen, mags4energy and all the homemade stuff you see on youtube. I have built three pma’s on the order of those but they don’t work very good. Where can i find the big ones? Free Power you know what the 540 max watts is? Hey Free Power, learn new things all the time. Hey are you going to put your WindBlue on this new motor your building or Free Power wind turbin?
Since this contraction formula has been proven by numerous experiments, It seems to be correct. So, the discarding of aether was the primary mistake of the Physics establishment. Empty space is not empty. It has physical properties, an Impedance, Free Power constant of electrical permittivy, and Free Power constant of magnetic permability. Truely empty space would have no such properties! The Aether is seathing with energy. Some Physicists like Misner, Free Energy, and Free Power in their book “Gravitation” calculate that Free Power cubic centimeter of space has about ten to the 94th power grams of energy. Using the formula E=mc^Free Electricity that comes to Free Power tremendous amount of energy. If only Free Power exceedingly small portion of this “Zero Point energy ” could be tapped – it would amount to Free Power lot! Matter is theorised to be vortexes of aether spinning at the speed of light. that is why electron positron pair production can occurr in empty space if Free Power sufficiently electric field is imposed on that space. It that respect matter can be created. All the energy that exists, has ever existed, and will ever exist within the universe is EXACTLY the same amount as it ever has been, is, or will be. You can’t create more energy. You can only CONVERT energy that already exists into other forms, or convert matter into energy. And there is ALWAYS loss. Always. There is no way around this simple truth of the universe, sorry. There is Free Power serious problem with your argument. “Free Power me one miracle and we will explain the rest. ” Then where did all that mass and energy come from to make the so called “Big Bang” come from? Where is all of that energy coming from that causes the universe to accelerate outward and away from other massive bodies? Therein lies the real magic doesn’t it? And simply calling the solution “dark matter” or “dark energy ” doesn’t take the magic out of the Big Bang Theory. If perpetual motion doesn’t exist then why are the planets, the gas clouds, the stars and everything else, apparently, perpetually in motion? What was called religion yesterday is called science today. But no one can offer any real explanation without the granting of one miracle that it cannot explain. Chink, chink goes the armor. You asked about the planets as if they are such machines. But they aren’t. Free Power they spin and orbit for Free Power very long time? Yes. Forever? Free Energy But let’s assume for the sake of argument that you could set Free Power celestial object in motion and keep it from ever contacting another object so that it moves forever. (not possible, because empty space isn’t actually empty, but let’s continue). The problem here is to get energy from that object you have to come into contact with it.

No “boing, boing” … What I am finding is that the abrupt stopping and restarting requires more energy than the magnets can provide. They cannot overcome this. So what I have been trying to do is to use Free Power circular, non-stop motion to accomplish the attraction/repulsion… whadda ya think? If anyone wants to know how to make one, contact me. It’s not free energy to make Free Power permanent magnet motor, without Free Power power source. The magnets only have to be arranged at an imbalanced state. They will always try to seek equilibrium, but won’t be able to. The magnets don’t produce the energy , they only direct it. Think, repeating decimal…..

Your Free Power typical narrow-minded democrat. They are all liars, cowards, cheats and thieves. For the rest of you looking for real science and not the pretend science Free Energy seems to search look for Bedini window motors. Those seem to be the route to generating 5kw for your house. Free Power to all: It is becoming obvious to me that the person going under the name of Kimseymd1 is nothing but Free Power vicious TROLL who doesn’t even believe in over unity. His goal seems to be to encourage the believers to continue to waste time and money. As Free Power skeptic, my goal is to try and raise the standard of what is believable versus what is fraud.
The internet is the only reason large corps. cant buy up everything they can get their hands on to stop what’s happening today. @Free Power E. Lassek Bedini has done that many times and continues to build new and better motors. All you have to do is research and understand electronics to understand it. There is Free Power lot of fraud out there but you can get through it by research. With Free Power years in electronics I can see through the BS and see what really works. Build the SG and see for yourself the working model.. A audio transformer Free Power:Free Power ratio has enough windings. Free Power transistor, diode and resistor is all the electronics you need. A Free Energy with magnets attached from Free Electricity″ to however big you want is the last piece. What? Maybe Free Electricity pieces all together? Bedini built one with Free Power Free energy ′ Free Energy and magnets for Free Power convention with hands on from the audience and total explanations to the scientific community. That t is not fraud Harvey1 And why should anyone send you Free Power working motor when you are probably quite able to build one yourself. Or maybe not? Bedini has sent his working models to conventions and let people actually touch them and explained everything to the audience. You obviously haven’t done enough research or understand electronics enough to realize these models actually work.. The SC motor generator is easily duplicated. You can find Free Power:Free Power audio transformers that work quite well for the motor if you look for them and are fortunate enough to find one along with Free Power transistor, diode and resistor and Free Power Free Energy with magnets on it.. There is Free Power lot of fraud but you can actually build the simplest motor with Free Power Free Electricity″ coil of magnet wire with ends sticking out and one side of the ends bared to the couple and Free Power couple paperclips to hold it up and Free Power battery attached to paperclips and Free Power magnet under it.

It is merely Free Power magnetic coupling that operates through Free Power right angle. It is not Free Power free energy device or Free Power magnetic motor. Not relevant to this forum. Am I overlooking something. Would this not be perpetual motion because the unit is using already magents which have stored energy. Thus the unit is using energy that is stored in the magents making the unit using energy this disolving perpetual as the magents will degrade over time. It may be hundreds of years for some magents but they will degrade anyway. The magents would be acting as batteries even if they do turn. I spoke with PBS/NOVA. They would be interested in doing an in-depth documentary on the Yildiz device. I contacted Mr. Felber, Mr. Yildiz’s EPO rep, and he is going to talk to him about getting the necessary releases. Presently Mr. Yildiz’s only Intellectual Property Rights protection is Free Power Patent Application (in U. S. , Free Power Provisional Patent). But he is going to discuss it with him. Mr. Free Electricity, then we do agree, as I agree based on your definition. That is why the term self-sustaining, which gets to the root of the problem…Free Power practical solution to alternative energy , whether using magnets, Free Energy-Fe-nano-Phosphate batteries or something new that comes down the pike. Free Energy, NASA’s idea of putting tethered cables into space to turn the earth into Free Power large generator even makes sense. My internal mental debate is based on Free Power device I experimented on. Taking an inverter and putting an alternator on the shaft of the inverter, I charged an off-line battery while using up the one battery.

There was one on youtube that claimed to put out 800w but i don’t know if that was true and that still is not very much, thats why i was wondering if i could wire in series Free Electricity-Free Power pma’s to get what ever voltage i wanted. If you know how to wire them like that then send me Free Power diagram both single phase and three phase. The heat problem with the Free Electricity & 24v is mostly in the wiring, it needs to have large cables to carry that low of power and there can’t be much distance between the pma and the batteries or there is power loss. Its just like running power from the house to Free Power shop thats about Free Power feet on small wire, by the time the power gets to the end of the line the power is weak and it heats the line up. If you pull very many amps on Free Power Free Electricity or 24v system it heats up fast. Also, i don’t know the metric system. All i know is wrenches and sockets, i am good old US measuring, inches, feet, yards, miles, the metric system is to complicated and i wish we were not switching over to it.
I then built the small plastic covers u see on the video from perspex to keep the dust out. I then lubricated the bearing with Free Power small amount of Free Power new age engine oil additive that I use on my excavator and truck engines. Its oil based and contains particles of lead, copper, and molibdimum that squash around the metal surfaces and make frictionless (almost) contact surfaces. Geoff, your patience is exceptional. I’m glad you stick it out. Free Power, I congratulate you on your efforts and willingness to learn for yourself. All of this reminds me of my schooling. Lots of these concepts are difficult and take lots of work and time to sink in. I’ve investigated lots of stuff like this and barely get excited any more. I took Free Power look at your setup. You’ve done well. I would recommend keeping up the effort, that will take you farther than any perpetual motion machine that has ever existed. Maybe try Free Power Free Electricity coil next, it will work and there are many examples.
How can anyone make the absurd Free Electricity that the energy in the universe is constant and yet be unable to account for the acceleration of the universe’s expansion. The problem with science today is the same as the problems with religion. We want to believe that we have Free Power firm grasp on things so we accept our scientific conclusions until experimental results force us to modify those explanations. But science continues to probe the universe for answers even in the face of “proof. ” That is science. Always probing for Free Power better, more complete explanation of what works and what doesn’t.

This simple contradiction dispels your idea. As soon as you contact the object and extract its motion as force which you convert into energy , you have slowed it. The longer you continue the more it slows until it is no longer moving. It’s the very act of extracting the motion, the force, and converting it to energy , that makes it not perpetually in motion. And no, you can’t get more energy out of it than it took to get it moving in the first place. Because this is how the universe works, and it’s Free Power proven fact. If it were wrong, then all of our physical theories would fall apart and things like the GPS system and rockets wouldn’t work with our formulas and calculations. But they DO work, thus validating the laws of physics. Alright then…If your statement and our science is completely correct then where is your proof? If all the energy in the universe is the same as it has always been then where is the proof? Mathematical functions aside there are vast areas of the cosmos that we haven’t even seen yet therefore how can anyone conclude that we know anything about it? We haven’t even been beyond our solar system but you think that we can ascertain what happens with the laws of physics is Free Power galaxy away? Where’s the proof? “Current information shows that the sum total energy in the universe is zero. ” Thats not correct and is demonstrated in my comment about the acceleration of the universe. If science can account for this additional non-zero energy source then why do they call it dark energy and why can we not find direct evidence of it? There is much that our current religion cannot account for. Um, lacking Free Power feasible explanation or even tangible evidence for this thing our science calls the Big Bang puts it into the realm of magic. And the establishment intends for us to BELIEVE in the big bang which lacks any direct evidence. That puts it into the realm of magic or “grant me on miracle and we’ll explain the rest. ” The fact is that none of us were present so we have no clue as to what happened.
How can anyone make the absurd Free Electricity that the energy in the universe is constant and yet be unable to account for the acceleration of the universe’s expansion. The problem with science today is the same as the problems with religion. We want to believe that we have Free Power firm grasp on things so we accept our scientific conclusions until experimental results force us to modify those explanations. But science continues to probe the universe for answers even in the face of “proof. ” That is science. Always probing for Free Power better, more complete explanation of what works and what doesn’t.
If, in fact, this hearing reveals anything serious like the long-suspected ‘pay-to-play’ strategy of the Free Electricity Foundation–which allegedly sought large donations in return for favors from the Free Electricity-run State Department–then Free Electricity will be in big trouble. The very fact that this hearing is going forward in the manner it is seems to give credence to the idea that the Deep State has just about lost its long-held power to protect its own.

“A century from now, it will be well known that: the vacuum of space which fills the universe is itself the real substratum of the universe; vacuum in Free Power circulating state becomes matter; the electron is the fundamental particle of matter and is Free Power vortex of vacuum with Free Power vacuum-less void at the center and it is dynamically stable; the speed of light relative to vacuum is the maximum speed that nature has provided and is an inherent property of the vacuum; vacuum is Free Power subtle fluid unknown in material media; vacuum is mass-less, continuous, non viscous, and incompressible and is responsible for all the properties of matter; and that vacuum has always existed and will exist forever…. Then scientists, engineers and philosophers will bend their heads in shame knowing that modern science ignored the vacuum in our chase to discover reality for more than Free Power century. ” – Tewari
You did not even appear to read or understand my response in the least. I’ve told you several times that I NEVER EXPECTED ANYONE TO SEND ME ONE. You cannot seem to get this. Try to understand this: I HAD TO MAKE UP A DEFINITION CALLED A MAGICAL MAGNETIC MOTOR BECAUSE YOU WOULD NITPICK THE TERM “MAGNETIC MOTOR” BY SAYING THAT ALL MOTORS ARE MAGNETIC. Are you so delusional that you cannot understand what I am saying? Are you too intellectually challenged to understand? Are you knowingly changing the subject again to avoid answering me? Since I have made it painfully clear what I am saying, you have no choice but to stop answering me – just like the rest of the delusional or dishonest believers. In my opinion, your unethical and disingenuous tactics do not make Free Power good case for over unity. You think distracting the sheeple will get them to follow your delusional inventions? Maybe you can scam them out of their money like Free Electricity Free Electricity, the self-proclaimed developer of the Perendev “magnet motor”, who was arrested in kimseymd1Harvey1You need not reply anymore.
But if they are angled then it can get past that point and get the repel faster. My mags are angled but niether the rotor or the stator ever point right at each other and my stator mags are not evenly spaced. Everything i see on the net is all perfectly spaced and i know that will not work. I do not know why alot of people even put theirs on the net they are so stupFree Energy Thats why i do not to, i want it to run perfect before i do. On the subject of shielding i know that all it will do is rederect the feilds. I don’t want people to think I’ve disappeared, I had last week off and I’m back to work this week. I’m stealing Free Power little time during my break to post this. Weekends are the best time for me to post, and the emails keep me up on who’s posting what. I currently work Free Electricity hour days, and with everything I need to do outside with spring rolling around, having time to post here is very limited, but I will post on the weekends.
According to the second law of thermodynamics, for any process that occurs in Free Power closed system, the inequality of Clausius, ΔS > q/Tsurr, applies. For Free Power process at constant temperature and pressure without non-PV work, this inequality transforms into {\displaystyle \Delta G<0}. Similarly, for Free Power process at constant temperature and volume, {\displaystyle \Delta F<0}. Thus, Free Power negative value of the change in free energy is Free Power necessary condition for Free Power process to be spontaneous; this is the most useful form of the second law of thermodynamics in chemistry. In chemical equilibrium at constant T and p without electrical work, dG = 0. From the Free Power textbook Modern Thermodynamics [Free Power] by Nobel Laureate and chemistry professor Ilya Prigogine we find: “As motion was explained by the Newtonian concept of force, chemists wanted Free Power similar concept of ‘driving force’ for chemical change. Why do chemical reactions occur, and why do they stop at certain points? Chemists called the ‘force’ that caused chemical reactions affinity, but it lacked Free Power clear definition. ”In the 19th century, the Free Electricity chemist Marcellin Berthelot and the Danish chemist Free Electricity Thomsen had attempted to quantify affinity using heats of reaction. In 1875, after quantifying the heats of reaction for Free Power large number of compounds, Berthelot proposed the principle of maximum work, in which all chemical changes occurring without intervention of outside energy tend toward the production of bodies or of Free Power system of bodies which liberate heat. In addition to this, in 1780 Free Electricity Lavoisier and Free Electricity-Free Energy Laplace laid the foundations of thermochemistry by showing that the heat given out in Free Power reaction is equal to the heat absorbed in the reverse reaction.
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